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Main Curriculum Tie:
Activity Two Group—Making Butter—Physical Change
Colonial Living, by Edwin Tunis; ISBN 9780801862274 (Paperback)
If You Lived in Colonial Times, by Ann McGovern; ISBN 059045160X (Paperback)
If You Lived In Williamsburg in Colonial Days, by Barbara Brenner; 0590929224 (Paperback)
Background For Teachers:
There are two types of chemical changes here. One is the burning of the firewood. The other, is the dough changing into bread.
Another commodity that was made and used extensively by colonists was butter. Butter was not only used on bread, but used for all types of cooking and put on food to eat. It made food taste good.
Changing cream into butter is a physical change.
In the following activities, the students will experience seeing
bread made and experience making butter. They will rotate to the two
stations and make the products or observe the products being made.
They will experience how colonial people made bread and butter.
Students will personally make some of these products from raw matter,
and some will be made by a teacher demonstration for the purpose
of safety. Each student will keep a record in a journal about how
each product was made and what they discovered. They will also see
whether the product was produced by a physical or chemical change.
Intended Learning Outcomes:
Hand out a store-made sugar cookie to each class member. Ask the students where the cookie came from. (They will probably say that it came from a store.) Ask the students where the store got it. (They will say from a cookie factory for they have probably visited one before.) Then ask them, how did they make the cookie? (They had different ingredients that they put into the cookie.)
Draw a big pot on the board. Have the students name all the ingredients that went into the cookie (sugar, milk, eggs, vanilla, flour, baking power, etc.). Write the words in the pot on the board. Ask the students, as the ingredients are being mixed, what does it turn into? (Cookie dough) Then ask them that even though we can't see any of the ingredients, are they all still in the cookie dough? (Yes) In fact, it is possible that a chemist could analyze the cookie dough and actually tell us what was in the dough because it is still in there. What kind of change is this called when we just mix things together but the substances still exist? (A physical change.)
But, we don't want to eat cookie dough. We want a cookie. What do we do to make a cookie out of cookie dough? (It is baked in the oven with heat.) When we take the cookies out of the oven, are they still a mixture of sugar, milk, eggs, vanilla, flour, and baking powder? (No) Why not? (They have gone through a chemical change.) What does a chemical change mean? A chemical change is a process where one type of substance is chemically changed into a totally different substance. Usually, if heat is used it is a chemical change. Heat melts substances and combines them with other substances. Sometimes things fizzle, give off heat, and change into a new substance that feels different. Chemical changes occur every day all around us, especially when we are cooking.
"Today we are going to look at two foods that are made everyday to see what type of change they go through. We will split you into two groups."
Activity One Group—Making Bread—Physical Change (dough); Chemical Change (bread)
Making the Bread Dough
Activity Two Group—Making Butter—Physical Change
Making the Butter (To be done in a clean area.)
Armstrong, T. (1994). Multiple intelligences in the classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Multiple intelligences let students choose a method of learning in connecting one subject to other subjects to their world. The integration of instructional methods focuses on teaching a standard in one curricular area and matching it to a standard in another curricular area such as integrating science with language arts, math, math, or social studies. As educators teach with this idea in mind it helps students see a connection between subjects relating to the real world. It helps students understand their world better to see how subjects relate to each other. This method puts into practice the teaching of multiple intelligences.
Ketch, A. (2005). Conversation: the comprehension connection. The Reading Teacher, Vol. 59, No. 1, pp. 8-18.
Students who engage in conversation in the classroom become reflective thinkers. Conversation brings meaning to students as they contemplate to understand our complex world. Conversation is the comprehension connection. There are literature circles, book clubs, whole-class discussions, pair-share, small-group discussion, and individual conferences that help in conversation comprehension.
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