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CTE/Family & Consumer Sciences Education Curriculum Human Development
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Core Standards of the Course

Strand 1
Students will participate in activities that help increase their awareness about what development is with its life-span perspectives, understand the four broad theories, and understand the scientific methods.

Standard 1
Defines development, briefly describing the how, why, and who of this definition. (STEM) *Science

  1. Define development, focusing on three elements of its scientific study. (Biosocial, Cognitive, Psychosocial)
  2. List and describe the basic steps of the scientific method. (1. Consider information, 2. Pose a question, 3. Develop a hypothesis, 4. Test the hypothesis, 5. Draw conclusions, 6. Report findings, 7. Replicate).
  3. Define the nature-nurture controversy.

Standard 2
Explains the life-span perspective, which identifies five characteristics of the scientific study of human development. (STEM) *Science

  1. Explain what it means to say development is multidirectional (continuity and discontinuity, sensitive and critical period).
  2. Discuss the multicontextual aspects of human life. (Including historical events, cohorts, SES, and ecological-systems approach).
  3. Discuss the multicultural nature of human development include the definition and differentiate culture, ethnicity, and race.
  4. Discuss how the multidisciplinary approach to the study of development makes clear that each person develops simultaneously in the three domains. (biosocial, cognitive, psychosocial).
  5. Explain the importance of plasticity in human development. (Including dynamic systems).

Standard 3
Describe the five broad theories - psychoanalytic theory, behaviorism, cognitive theory, humanism, evolutionary theories - that will be used throughout the book to present information and to provide a framework for interpreting events and issues in human development. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Compare the major focus of psychoanalytic theories and theorists.
  2. Describe the conflicts that occur during Freud's psychosexual stages.
  3. Describe the crises of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.
  4. Discuss the major focus of behaviorism, and explain the basic principles of classical and operant conditioning include social learning theory as an extension of behaviorism.
  5. Identify the primary focus of cognitive theory, and briefly describe Piaget's stages of cognitive development and the process that, according to Piaget, guides cognitive development.
  6. Describe the major focus of humanism according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
  7. Discuss the evolutionary theory and how it explains human development.

Standard 4
Discuss the strategies developmentalists use in their research, including scientific observation, experiments, and surveys. To study people over time, developmentalists have created several research designs. (STEM) *Science

  1. Describe scientific observation as a research strategy, noting at least one advantage (or strength) and one disadvantage (or weakness).
  2. Describe the components of an experiment, and discuss the main advantage of this research method. (Including independent/dependent variables and experimental/control groups).
  3. Describe surveys, noting at least one advantage (or strength) and one disadvantage (or weakness).
  4. Describe three basic research designs used by developmental psychologists. (Including cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cross-sequential).

Standard 5
Discuss several common mistakes that can be made in interpreting research, including the mistake of confusing correlation with causation and the ethics of research with humans. (STEM) *Science

  1. Discuss the difference between correlation and causation.
  2. Discuss the difference between quantitative and qualitative research.
  3. Discuss the code of ethics and protection of research.

Strand 2
Students will understand everything about the developing person - including physical attributes, such as gender and appearance, as well as intellectual and personality characteristics.

Standard 1
Describe the fusion of the ovum and the sperm and the biological mechanisms by which normal, and sometimes abnormal, chromosomes and genes are transmitted to the developing zygote. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Identify the building blocks of heredity (DNA, genes, chromosomes, and gametes).
  2. Differentiate genotype from phenotype, and discuss genetic diversity within the human genome (include allele).
  3. Explain how sex is determined, and discuss the polygenic and multifactorial nature of human traits. (Distinguish between monozygotic and dizygotic twins).
  4. Describe the additive and non-additive patterns of genetic interaction, giving examples of the traits that result from each type of interaction. (Include recessive genes and X-linked genes in terms of genotype and phenotype).

Standard 2
Discusses the prenatal development process up to and including birth (germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods). (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe the significant developments of the germinal period (include duplication/division, differentiation, and implantation).
  2. Describe the embryonic period (embryo).
  3. Describe the fetal period (include fetus, ultrasound, age of viability).
  4. Describe the birth process; including the possible need for medical intervention during this process, as well as the test used to assess the newborn's condition at birth (include apgar scale and cesarean section).
  5. Identify the reflexes that a newborn exhibits.
  6. Discuss the importance of prenatal care, social support, a strong parental alliance, and parent infant bonding to a healthy start for the baby (Include postpartum depression and kangaroo care).

Standard 3
Discussion of abnormal genes and chromosomes, possible teratogens, and risk analysis, low birthweight. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe the most common chromosomal abnormalities (Including Down syndrome and sex chromosome abnormalities).
  2. Identify several teratogens, noting their effects on the developing embryo or fetus, and discuss several factors that determine whether a specific teratogen will be harmful.
  3. Discuss how to minimize risks involved with pregnancy (Include critical and sensitive period, threshold effect, fetal alcohol syndrome, and age of mother).
  4. Identify the difference between and consequences of low birthweight, very low birthweight, extremely low birthweight (include preterm and small for gestational age).

Standard 4
Discussion of how nature and nurture interact to affect development, focusing on alcoholism, nearsightedness, and certain birth defects, often caused by exposure to teratogens. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe how nature and nurture interact to yield a person's phenotype, using nearsightedness and alcoholism as examples.

Strand 3
Student will understand the typical patterns of growth and maturation that occur in the infant's body (first two years) and nervous system and looks at how the development of sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities keeps pace with physical development.

Standard 1
Understand the interaction of biological and environmental forces on physical development of the first two years with one critical variable, nutrition. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe the infant's height and weight, including how they change during the first two years and how they compare with those of an adult.
  2. Describe the brain development during the first two years (include neurons, axons, dendrites, synapses, prefrontal cortex, transient exuberance, and pruning) as well as the harm and protection of the brain (include shaken baby syndrome and self-righting).
  3. Describe how sleep patterns change through infancy and discuss the attitudes of different cultures about where infants sleep (include REM and co-sleeping).

Standard 2
Explores cognitive development - the ways in which the infant comes to learn about, think about, and adapt to his or her surroundings. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Distinguish among sensation, perception, and cognition.
  2. Describe the extent and development of an infant's sensory and perceptual abilities in terms of the senses of hearing, vision, taste, smell, and touch (include binocular vision).
  3. Describe the basic pattern of motor-skill development, and discuss variations in the timing of motor-skill acquisition (include gross motor and fine motor).
  4. Discuss the 3 main goals of the dynamic sensory motor system (social interaction, comfort, and learning).

Standard 3
Explore why the infant mortality rate has decreased during the twenty-ffirst century, and understand the causes and consequences of infant malnutrition and under-nutrition. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Identify key factors in the worldwide decline in childhood mortality over the last century.
  2. Discuss the importance of childhood immunizations.
  3. Discuss the nutrition for the first two years (include breast milk, colostrum, malnutrition, marasmus, and kwashiorkor).

Standard 4
Turns to the most remarkable cognitive achievement of the first two years: the acquisition of language. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Identify and describe stages one through six of Piaget's theory of sensorimotor intelligence. (Include object permanence, little scientist, and mirror neurons).
  2. Explain the information-processing model of cognition and discuss research findings on infant memory. (Include reminder session).

Standard 5
Understand the acquisition of language. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Identify the universal sequence of language development (include child-directed speech, babbling, holophrase, naming explosion, and grammar).
  2. Differentiate theories of language learning, and explain current views on language learning. (Include behaviorist, social cultural, LAD, and hybrid theories).

Strand 4
The student will explore the psychosocial development including not only the characteristics of the individual, such as self-awareness and personality, but also the relationships between the child and parents and the child and his or her culture.

Standard 1
Explore the infant's emerging emotions. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe the basic emotions expressed by infants during the first year (include social smile, stress/cortisol, separation anxiety, and stranger wariness).
  2. Describe the main developments in the emotional life of a toddler (include self-awareness, pride, shame, embarrassment, disgust, and guilt).

Standard 2
Emotions and brain maturation is explored. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Identify how the brain supports social emotions (include memory and stress).
  2. Discuss the role of temperament in the child's psychosocial development (include the influence of genes and the child-rearing methods).

Standard 3
Explore the development of social bonds that lead to growth. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Discuss the importance of goodness of fit and synchrony in caregiver-infant interaction during the first year, and describe the still - face technique for measuring synchrony.
  2. Define attachment, explain how it is measured and how it is influenced by context, and identify factors that predict secure or insecure attachment (include insecure-avoidant/anxious, secure, insecure-resistant/ambivalent, disorganized).
  3. Discuss the concept of social referencing, noting the difference in how the infant interacts with mother and father.

Standard 4
Describes the psychoanalytic theories of Freud and Erikson along with behaviorism, cognitive, humanism, and evolutionary theories, which help us understand how the infant's emotional and behavioral responses begin to take on the various patterns that form personality. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Compare Freud's first two psychosexual stages of infant development to Erikson's first two psychosocial stages of infant development (include anal and oral stage, trust vs. mistrust, and autonomy vs. shame and doubt).
  2. Describe the behaviorism perspective on emotion and personality that are influenced by parents (include social learning, distal and proximal parenting).
  3. Describe how the cognitive theory effects a person's perspective (include working model).
  4. Describe how the humanist theory could explain the interaction between infant and caregiver.
  5. Describe the evolutionary theory and how it relates to survival and reproduction (include allocare).
  6. Discuss the impact of non-maternal care on young children, and identify the factors that define high-quality day care (include family day care and center day care).

Strand 5
The student will explore the developing person between the ages of 2 and 6. These years were once called the preschool years or the play years, but those terms are misnomers because school in all its varieties and playfulness are essential to development at every age.

Standard 1
Describes growth rates and the changes in shape that occur from ages 2 through 6, as well as the toddlers' eating habits. A description of the acquisition of gross and fine motor skills follows, noting the negative effects of environmental hazards on the development of motor skills. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe normal physical growth during early childhood, and account for variations in height and weight.
  2. Describe changes in eating habits during early childhood (include overweight, deficiencies, allergies, just right principle, and oral health).
  3. Distinguish between gross and fine motor skills, and discuss the development of each during early childhood (include environmental hazards).
  4. Briefly discuss the risk of accidental injury among children.
  5. Explain what is meant by "injury control," and describe some measures that have significantly reduced accidental death rates among children (include primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention).

Standard 2
Examines the brain growth and development and its role in physical and cognitive development. The developing limbic system is also described, along with its role in the expression and regulation of emotions during early childhood. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe the development of the prefrontal cortex during early childhood and its role in impulse control and appropriate focus.
  2. Discuss the processes of myelination and its effect on development during this period.
  3. Describe how the two hemispheres communicate (include corpus callosum and lateralization).
  4. Describe the development of the limbic system in young children and its role in the expression and regulation of emotions (include amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus).

Standard 3
Explains Piaget's and Vygotsky's views of cognitive development at this age as well as focuses on what young children can do, including their emerging abilities to theorize about the world. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe and discuss the major characteristics of Piaget's stage of preoperational thought, and identify a major limitation of Piaget's research (include symbolic thought, animism, centration, egocentrism, focus on appearance, static reasoning, irreversibility, conservation).
  2. Explain Vygotsky's views on cognitive development, focusing on the concepts of guided participation and scaffolding in promoting cognitive growth (include zone of proximal development and overimitation).
  3. Describes children theories (include how theory - theory supports the idea that children are active learners and explain the typical young child's theory of mind, noting how it is affected by context and culture).

Standard 4
Describe the cognitive learning of language. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe the time frame for the development of grammar during early childhood, noting limitations in the young child's language abilities.
  2. Explain the vocabulary and comprehension of speech (include fast-mapping and over regularization).
  3. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of bilingualism at an early age.

Standard 5
Understand the variations in early-childhood-education programs and identify the characteristics of a high-quality preschool intervention program, and briefly discuss the costs and benefits of preschool education

  1. Discuss the different options of early-childhood education (include home, child-centered programs, Montessori, Reggio Emilia, teacher-directed programs, and Headstart).
  2. Discuss the long-term benefits of early education.

Strand 6
Student will explore the ways in which young children begin to relate to others in an ever widening social environment.

Standard 1
Describes young children social understanding beginning with emotional development and the emergence of the sense of self. With their increasing social awareness, children become more concerned with how others evaluate them and better able to regulate their emotions. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Explain the relationship between Erik Erikson's third stage and the development of the self-concept (include initiative vs guilt).
  2. Discuss the development during early childhood of emotional regulation.
  3. Identify the different types of motivation (include extrinsic vs. intrinsic, and effects of rewards/positive reinforcement).
  4. Identify the different emotions within various cultures.
  5. Discuss how to reduce psychopathology and seek emotional balance (include externalizing and internalizing problems).

Standard 2
Discuss the importance of play in the psychosocial development of the young child, noting the different kinds of play and their respective roles. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Discuss cultural differences and types of play (include solitary, onlooker, parallel, associative, and cooperative).
  2. Identify the benefits of active play (include rough and tumble and sociodramatic).

Standard 3
Discusses Baumrind's parenting patterns and their effects on the developing child. The effects of the media (especially television) and gender affect childhood psychosocial development. (STEM) *Technology/ Human Development/Biology

  1. Compare and contrast the classic patterns and limitations of parenting and their effect on children (include authoritarian, permissive, authoritative, and neglectful/uninvolved).
  2. Discuss how exposure to the electronic media, especially television, contributes to the development of violence in children and interferes with family life.
  3. Discuss gender differences that emerge during early childhood, focusing on the explanations offered by the major developmental theories (include sex differences, gender differences, phallic stage, Oedipus complex, superego, Electra complex, identification, gender schema).

Standard 4
Discuss how children develop moral values and behaviors as they grow and develop social bonds. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Explain how and why children develop empathy or antipathy, and describe the behaviors produced by each type of emotion (include antisocial and prosocial behavior).
  2. Differentiate four types of aggression during the play years, and describe the developmental pattern of aggression (include instrumental, reactive, relational, and bullying aggression).
  3. Discuss the pros and cons of punishment, and describe effective methods for disciplining a child (include physical, psychological control, time-out/social exclusion, and explanation).

Standard 5
Identify the various categories of child maltreatment, and discuss the warning signs, consequences, and prevention of child maltreatment include foster care and kinship care as intervention options.

  1. Define the different types of maltreatment and short-term/long-term consequences (include child maltreatment, child abuse, and child neglect).
  2. Discuss the three levels of prevention when addressing child maltreatment (include primary, secondary, and tertiary).

Strand 7
The student will explore the middle childhood stage; physical growth, cognitive abilities, education including language and the controversy over ways of measuring intellectual capacity and achievement.

Standard 1
Understand middle childhood is generally the healthiest period of the life span, health related problems still occur; two of the most serious are asthma and obesity. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe normal physical growth and development during middle childhood.
  2. Discuss the benefits and hazards of play activity and physical exercise for 7- to 11- year-olds.
  3. Discuss the short-term and long-term problems of asthma and obesity in middle childhood (include BMI, overweight, and obesity).

Standard 2
Examine the development of cognitive abilities, beginning with the views of Piaget and Vygotsky regarding the child's growing ability to use logic and reasoning (as emphasized by Piaget) and to benefit from social interactions with skilled mentors (as emphasized by Vygotsky). (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Identify and discuss Piaget's concrete operational thought, and give examples of how these operations are demonstrated by school-age children (include classification and seriation).
  2. Discuss Vygotsky's views regarding the influence of the sociocultural context on learning during middle childhood.
  3. Discuss how information-processing theory explains cognitive advances during middle childhood (include reaction time, selective attention, sensory memory, working memory/short-term memory, long-term memory, and metacognition).

Standard 3
Discusses the education, including language learning, during middle childhood. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Understand vocabulary is affected by a child's age (include pragmatics, informal/formal codes).
  2. Describe the development of language during the school years and identify several conditions that foster the learning of a second language, and describe the best approaches to bilingual education (include immersion, bi-lingual, and ESL programs).

Standard 4
Describe the variations in schooling and testing during middle childhood.

  1. Describe cultural and national variations in the academic skills that are emphasized, and explain the concept of a hidden curriculum (include charter schools, parochial schools, private schools, vouchers, and home schooling).
  2. Discuss different approaches to the objective assessment of what children have learned (include NCLB).
  3. Explain how achievement and aptitude tests are used in evaluating individual differences in cognitive growth (include IQ, multiple intelligences).

Standard 5
Explain the developmental psychopathology perspective, and discuss its value in treating children with special needs.

  1. Describe the symptoms and treatment of attention-deficit disorder, attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, and bi-polar and discuss the use and misuse of prescription drugs in treating these disorders.
  2. Discuss the characteristics of learning disabilities and identify the symptoms and possible causes of dyslexia, autistic spectrum disorders, and describe the most effective treatments.
  3. Describe techniques that have been tried in efforts to educate children with special needs (include IEP, LRE, RTI).

Strand 8
Student will be able to understand from ages 7 to 11, the child becomes stronger and more competent, mastering the biosocial and cognitive abilities that are important in his or her culture.

Standard 1
Explore the growing social competence of children, as described by Erikson and Freud, the growth of social cognition and self-understanding, and the ways in which children cope with stressful situations. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Identify the themes and emphases of the psychoanalytic views regarding the psychosocial development of school-age children (include industry vs. inferiority and latency).
  2. Describe the development of the self-concept during middle childhood and its implications for children's self-esteem (include social comparison).
  3. Discuss the concept of resilience, and identify the variables that influence the impact of stresses on school-age children and discuss several factors that seem especially important in helping children cope with stress (include social and religious resources).

Standard 2
Explores the ways in which families influence children, including the experience of living in single-parent, stepparent, and blended families. Although no particular family structure guarantees optimal child development, income levels and harmony and stability are important factors in the quality of family functioning. (STEM) *Biology/Science/Behavioral Sciences

  1. Describe the relative influences of shared and non-shared environmental factors on school-age children.
  2. Identify the essential ways in which functional families nurture school-age children.
  3. Differentiate 10 family structures and their advantages and disadvantages and how it impacts the family structure and function on the psychosocial development of the school-age child.
  4. Explain how low income and high conflict can interfere with good family functioning.

Standard 3
Children's interactions with peers and others in their ever-widening social world is the subject of the third section. Although the peer group often is a supportive, positive influence on children, some children are rejected by their peers or become the victims of bullying. (STEM) *Biology/Science/Behavioral Sciences

  1. Discuss the importance of peer groups to the development of school-age children, focusing on how the culture of children separates itself from adult society (include aggressive-rejected, withdrawn-rejected).
  2. Discuss the special problems and consequences of bullies and their victims, and describe possible ways of helping such children (include physical, verbal, relational, and cyber bullying).

Standard 4
Understand that the middle childhood is also a time of expanding moral reasoning and examines Kohlberg's stage theory of moral development as well as current evaluations of his theory. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Outline Kohlberg's stage theory of moral development, noting some criticisms (include preconventional, conventional, and postconventional).

Strand 9
The Students will be identify all three domains of development - biosocial, and cognitive for young people ages 11 to 18 beginning with puberty ad the growth spurt. Although adolescence is, in many ways, a healthy time of life, the text also addresses two health hazards that affect many adolescents: sex too early and sexually transmitted illnesses.

Standard 1
Explain the biosocial metamorphosis of the adolescent is discussed in detail, with emphasis on factors that affect the age of puberty, sexual maturation, and changes in body rhythms. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Outline the biological events of puberty as well as discuss the emotional impact of pubertal hormones (include primary and secondary sex characteristics).
  2. Identify several factors that influence the onset of puberty, and discuss the effects of early and late maturation on male and female adolescents (include menarche and spermarche).
  3. Describe the growth spurt in both the male and the female adolescent, focusing on changes in body weight, height, and muscles.
  4. Discuss the relationship between adolescents' poor nutrition and their body image concerns.
  5. Describe the diagnosed eating disorders, and discuss possible explanations for these disorders.

Standard 2
Describe the cognitive advances and limitations of adolescence. With the attainment of formal operational thought, the developing person becomes able to think in an adult way - that is, to be logical, to think in terms of possibilities, and to reason scientifically and abstractly. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Discuss the relationship between the uneven neurological development of the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex, and how this relates to adolescent cognition and behavior.
  2. Discuss adolescent egocentrism, and give three examples of egocentric fantasies or fables (include personal fable, invincibility fable, and imaginary audience).
  3. Describe evidence of formal operational thinking during adolescence, and provide examples of adolescents' emerging ability to reason deductively and inductively (include hypothetical thought, deductive and inductive reasoning).
  4. Discuss the two modes of thinking (include intuitive and analytic thought).

Standard 3
Explores teaching and learning in middle school and high school, as adolescents enter secondary school, their grades often suffer and their level of participation decreases. The rigid behavioral demands and intensified competition of most secondary schools do not, unfortunately, provide a supportive learning environment for adolescents.

  1. Discuss possible reasons for the slump in academic performance and other problems that often appear during the transition from elementary school to middle school.
  2. Discuss the relationship between the technological advances in educational tools and teenage cognition and evaluate the typical secondary school's ability to meet the cognitive needs of the typical adolescent (include cyberbullying).

Strand 10
The student will identify adolescence heightened quest for self-understanding and identity. Friends, family, community, and culture are powerful social forces that help or hinder the adolescent's transition from childhood to adulthood.

Standard 1
Discusses the adolescent's efforts to achieve an identity, focusing on the impact of parents and peer groups on psychosocial development. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe the development of identity during adolescence (identity vs role confusion), and identify the four major identity statuses (include identity achievement, role confusion, foreclosure, moratorium).
  2. Discuss the search for identity through the formation of religious, gender, political/ ethnic, and vocational identities, and problems encountered in each.

Standard 2
Examines the influences of family, friends, and society on adolescent psychosocial development, including the development of romantic and sexual relationships. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe parental influence on identity formation, including the effect of parent-adolescent conflict and other aspects of parent-teen relationships (include bickering and parental monitoring).
  2. Explain the constructive functions of peer relationships and close friendships during adolescence and the unique challenges faced by immigrants (include peer pressure, clique, crowd and deviancy training).

Standard 3
Examines the sexual interactions of adolescents. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Discuss the various influences on teen sexual behavior, including peers, parents, and schools, and describe current trends in teen sexual behavior.
  2. Discuss the development of male-female relationships during adolescence, including the challenges faced by gay and lesbian adolescents (include sexual orientation).
  3. Discuss the potential problems associated with early sexual activity (include teen pregnancy and STIs).
  4. Discuss sexual abuse, focusing on its prevalence.
  5. Discuss the different sources of sexual education (home, media, peers, school).

Standard 4
Describe sadness and anger can take on adolescent lives, including depression, suicide, and delinquency. (STEM) *Biology/Science/Behavioral Sciences

  1. Discuss the causes of depression in adolescents, and describe some contributing factors and gender, ethnic, and national variations in adolescent suicides and suicide attempts (include familism, clinical depression, rumination, suicidal ideation, parasuicide, and cluster suicide).
  2. Discuss delinquency among adolescents today, noting its incidence and prevalence, causes, and best approaches for prevention or treatment.

Standard 5
Discuss drug use and abuse during adolescence and describe preventative measures. (STEM) *Biology/Science/Behavioral Sciences

  1. Discuss drug use and abuse among adolescents today, including their prevalence and significance for development (include the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs).

Strand 11
The student will examine the decisions emerging adults make regarding lifestyle affect the course of their overall development.

Standard 1
Description of the growth, strength, and health of the individual during emerging adulthood, including declines in the efficiency of the body's systems. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe the changes in growth, strength, and overall health that occur during emerging adulthood.
  2. Discuss changes in the efficiency of various body functions, focusing on the significance of these changes for the individual.
  3. Identify age-related trends in sexual responsiveness and differing attitudes about the purpose of sex.
  4. Discuss why emerging adults are more likely than people of other ages to take part in risky behaviors (include risky sports, drug use, and edgework).

Standard 2
Describes how adult thinking differs from adolescent thinking. The experiences and challenges of adulthood result in a new, more practical and flexible thinking. Also, examines the effect of the college experience on cognitive growth. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Identify the main characteristics of thinking during emerging adulthood, and tell how it differs from post-formal operational thought.
  2. Discuss the effects of culture on cognition and the relationship between cognitive growth and higher education (include stereotype threat and massification).
  3. Compare college students and institutions today with their counterparts of a decade or two ago, and evaluate the changing college context.

Standard 3
Examines the personality development during emerging adulthood, both positive and negative emotions are strong, also addresses the need for intimacy in adulthood, focusing on the development of friendship, love, and marriage. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Explain how the viewpoint of most developmentalists regarding identity formation has shifted (include ethnic identity, and vocational identity).
  2. Describe the personality of the emerging adults in regards to rising self-esteem and serious psychological disorders (include mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia).
  3. Discuss the need for intimacy in emerging adult, focusing on friendship, love, and marriage (include intimacy vs. isolation, hooking up, choice overload, and cohabitation).

Strand 12
The student will examine the ages of 25 and 65, most people experience a variety of physical changes, such as wrinkling, graying and thinning of the hair, and redistribution of fat deposits. In addition, sensory acuity generally declines. Most of these physical changes have no significant health consequences, however.

Standard 1
Describe the typical pattern of biosocial development during middle adulthood, as well as age-related changes in the sexual-reproductive system and in brain functioning. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Identify the typical physical signs of aging seen in middle adulthood and discuss their impact (include senescence, organ reserve, homeostasis, and allostasis).
  2. Identify the typical changes that occur in the sexual-reproductive system during middle adulthood (infertility and in-vitro fertilization, menopause, and andropause).
  3. Discuss the decline in brain, senses and physical appearance.

Standard 2
Discuss the relationship of heath to environment and personal factors. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe the relationship between health and certain lifestyle factors and the effects on the brain - tobacco and alcohol use, lack of exercise, and overeating - and identify measures for increasing health during middle adulthood (include mortality, morbidity, disability, and vitality).
  2. Discuss the differences in stress response (include problem-focused and emotion-focused)
  3. Discuss how health varies between and within SES and ethnic groups.

Standard 3
Understand the differences among the various methods of testing intelligence and to recognize that intellectual abilities can follow many different developmental patterns with age.

  1. Briefly trace the history of the controversy regarding adult intelligence, including the findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal research and how cross-sequential research compensates for the shortcomings of the other methods.
  2. Distinguish between fluid and crystallized intelligence, and explain how each is affected by age.
  3. Differentiate the three fundamental forms of intelligence described by Robert Sternberg (include analytical, creative, and practical).

Standard 4
Discuss the cognitive expertise that often comes with experience, pointing out the ways in which expert thinking differs from that of the novice. Expert thinking is more specialized, flexible, and intuitive and is guided by more and better problem-solving strategies. (STEM) *Engineering/Creativity & Problem Solving

  1. Explain the concept of selective optimization with compensation.
  2. Describe how the cognitive processes of experts differ from those of novices (include intuitive, automatic, strategic, and flexible).

Strand 13
The student will examine psychosocial development during adulthood is tied less to age than to context and circumstances.

Standard 1
Understand adult personality through examining Erikson's stage theory and the big five personality traits. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe the psychosocial tensions and goals of adulthood, as described by Erikson and Maslow (generativity vs. stagnation).
  2. Explain how the social clock influences the timing of important events during adulthood, and discuss problems with the concept of the midlife crisis.
  3. Describe the Big Five cluster of personality traits, and explain the concept of an ecological niche, noting how it interacts with personality (include openness, conscientious, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, and ecological niche).

Standard 2
Understand the ways in which friendships and family dynamics change during adulthood, and to discuss how and why marital happiness changes from the wedding to old age. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Discuss the importance of the social convoy in protecting adults against the effects of stress.
  2. Describe the roles that friendship plays in adulthood.
  3. Describe how relationships change during adulthood with siblings, children, and parents (include fictive kin).
  4. Describe how and why marital relationships tend to change during adulthood (include intimacy, passion, commitment and time periods of marital happiness, empty nest).
  5. Discuss the impact of divorce and remarriage during adulthood.

Standard 3
Examine how productivity during middle age is reflected in caregiving and employment. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Explain how caregiving helps meet the mature adult's need for generativity (include generativity vs. stagnation).
  2. Discuss parenthood, foster children, step-parenting, and adoption.
  3. Discuss middle-aged adults as the "sandwich generation," focusing on their caring for their elderly parents (include kinkeeper).
  4. Describe how the balance among work, family, and self often shifts during adulthood.
  5. Describe the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards associated with working, and how job change and job loss influences older workers.

Strand 14
The student will identify biosocial and cognitive development during late adulthood, discussing the myths and reality of this final stage of the life span.

Standard 1
Examine the biosocial development during late adulthood. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Define ageism, and explain the contributions of gerontology to changing views about old age.
  2. Describe ongoing changes in the age distribution of the American population, noting the current shape of the population (include elderspeak, pyramid vs square/demographic shift).
  3. Explain the current state of the dependency ratio, and distinguish among three categories of the aged (include young-old, old-old, and oldest-old).
  4. Discuss theories of aging (include wear and tear, genetic clock, cellular aging, Hayflick limit, calorie restriction).
  5. Discuss selective optimization with compensation in regards to sex, driving, and senses

Standard 2
Summarized the typical age-related changes that occur in the brain during late adulthood - especially the working memory and control processes. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe how the late adult uses more of the brain compared to the younger adult to accomplish the same tasks.
  2. Discuss how the brain processes information and which types of information are more likely to be remembered (input, working memory, control processes, ecological validity, and output).

Standard 3
Explores the physical health of the elderly, and to describe the progressive stages and forms of dementia. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Discuss primary and secondary aging in relation to diseases in old age, and describe the adjustments older adults may have to make in various areas of life in order to maintain optimal functioning.
  2. Explain the concept of compression of morbidity.
  3. Discuss the problem with identifying the cause of dementia in an older adult.
  4. Identify and describe the two most common organic causes of dementia and describe the causes of subcortical dementias, and explain how symptoms of dementia can sometimes be reversed or slowed through proper treatment as well as Alzheimer's (include vascular dementia, frontal lobe dementia, Parkinson's, lewy body dementia, polypharmacy).

Standard 4
Discuss positive cognitive changes that may occur during later life and identify the common features of geographical regions famous for long-lived people.

  1. Compare Erikson's integrity vs despair and Maslow's self-actualization.
  2. Discuss the purpose and benefits of a life review.
  3. Identify the parts of wisdom and how they are related to aging.
  4. Describe lifestyle factors that result in centenarians (include maximum life span, average life span, diet, work, family and community, exercise and relaxation).

Strand 15
The students will examine the major theories of psychosocial development during late adulthood.

Standard 1
Examine the psychosocial development of older persons from different theoretical perspectives. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Explain the central premises of the self-theories (include integrity versus despair, compulsive hoarding, positive effect.
  2. Discuss the view of stratification theories that social forces and cultural influences limit choices and direct life at every stage of development (include age-disengagement theory and activity theory, gender, and ethnicity).

Standard 2
Explore the ways in which older adults fulfill their need for generativity. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Discuss how work is viewed during late adulthood, and describe some activities chosen by retired people. (Volunteerism, religious involvement, continuing education, and political activism among older adults).
  2. Describe the components of the social convoy, and explain this convoy's increasing importance during late adulthood (include aging in place, NORC).

Standard 3
Explore the ways in which older adults fulfill their need for affiliation. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe long-term partners and how they protect against problems of aging.
  2. Describe the relationships between older adults and younger generations (include filial responsibility and types of grandparents-remote, companionate, involved, and surrogate).
  3. Identify the role of friendship in late adulthood.

Standard 4
Address some of the problems facing the frail elderly and their families, including caregiving and living arrangements. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Identify and discuss ADLs and IADLs as they relate to the elderly.
  2. Discuss alternative care arrangements for the frail elderly, identifying some of the potential advantages and disadvantages of each.
  3. Describe the risks and predictors of elder abuse.

Strand 16 (EPILOGUE)
Discuss how dying is viewed throughout the lifespan, and examine the dying person's wants and needs, and compare the expressions of grief, mourning and bereavement.

Standard 1
Identify the various meanings of death over the life span and in different religious and cultural contexts. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe how death and dying has changed from 100 years ago. (include thanatology)
  2. Analyze death throughout the lifespan.
  3. Describe a near-death experience.

Standard 2
Understand the meaning of a good death and explore the controversy whether to prolong life or hasten death in a terminally ill person. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Describe the characteristics of a good death that are accepted by most people.
  2. Identify the stages of grief according to Kubler-Ross (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) and compare to Maslow's Hierarchy of needs.
  3. Identify the purpose of hospice and palliative care (include living will, health care proxy).
  4. Determine the difference between passive and active euthanasia.

Standard 3
Understand grief and how it differs from mourning. (STEM) *Human Development/Biology

  1. Define normal grief compared to complicated grief.
  2. Identify the three types of complicated grief (absent grief, disenfranchised grief, and incomplete grief).
  3. Differentiate between grief, mourning, and bereavement.


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Email:  thalea.longhurst@schools.utah.gov

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