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Language Arts - Elementary Curriculum
2nd Grade - Language Arts
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Core Standards of the Course

Standard 1
(Oral Language): Students develop language for the purpose of effectively communicating through listening, speaking, viewing, and presenting.

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Objective 1
Develop language through listening and speaking.

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  1. Identify specific purpose(s) for listening (e.g., to gain information, to be entertained).
  2. Listen and demonstrate understanding by responding appropriately (e.g., follow multiple-step directions, restate, clarify, question, summarize).
  3. Speak clearly and audibly with expression in communicating ideas.
  4. Speak in complete sentences with appropriate subject-verb agreement.

Objective 2
Develop language through viewing media and presenting.

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  1. Identify specific purpose(s) for viewing media (i.e., identify main idea and details, to gain information, distinguish between fiction/nonfiction).
  2. Use a variety of formats (e.g., drama, sharing of books and personal writings, choral readings, informational reports, retelling experiences, and stories in sequence) in presenting with various forms of media (e.g., pictures, posters, charts, ads, newspapers).

Standard 2
(Concepts of Print): Students develop an understanding of how printed language works.
See Kindergarten and First Grade.

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Standard 3
(Phonological and Phonemic Awareness): Students develop phonological and phonemic awareness.
See Kindergarten and First Grade.


Standard 4
(Phonics and Spelling): Students use phonics and other strategies to decode and spell unfamiliar words while reading and writing.

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Objective 1
Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between letters and sounds.

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  1. Identify and pronounce all vowel diphthongs (e.g., oi, oy, aw, au) and consonant digraphs (e.g., ch, sh, th, wh) accurately in words.
  2. Identify and pronounce sounds for short and long vowels, using patterns (e.g., cvc, cvvc, cvcv, cvc-silent e), and vowel digraphs (e.g., ea, ee, ie, oa, ai, ay, oo, ow) accurately in two-syllable words.
  3. Identify and pronounce r-controlled vowel patterns in words (e.g., ar, or, er).
  4. Identify and blend letter sounds to pronounce words.

Objective 2
Use knowledge of structural analysis to decode words.

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  1. Identify and read grade level contractions and compound words.
  2. Identify sound patterns and apply knowledge to decode words (e.g., blends, digraphs, vowel patterns, r-controlled vowels).
  3. Demonstrate an understanding of representing same sound with different patterns by decoding these patterns accurately in isolation and in text (e.g., ee, ea, ei, e).
  4. Use knowledge of root words and prefixes (e.g., re, un, mis) and suffixes (e.g., s, es, ed, ing, est, ly) to decode words.
  5. Use letter and syllable patterns to pronounce multisyllabic words.

Objective 3
Spell words correctly.

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  1. Use knowledge of word families, patterns, and common letter combinations to spell new words.
  2. Spell words with short and long vowel sounds, r-controlled words, words with consonant blends, consonant and vowel digraphs.
  3. Spell an increasing number of grade level high-frequency and irregular words correctly (e.g., believe, answer).
  4. Learn the spellings of irregular and difficult words (e.g., because, animals, before, answer, weight).

Objective 4
Use spelling strategies to achieve accuracy (e.g., prediction, visualization, and association).

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  1. Use knowledge about spelling to predict the spelling of new words.
  2. Visualize words while writing.
  3. Associate the spelling of new words with that of known words and word patterns.
  4. Use spelling generalities to assist spelling of new words (e.g., one vowel between two consonants, silent “e” on the end of a word, two vowels together).

Standard 5
(Fluency): Students develop reading fluency to read aloud grade level text effortlessly without hesitation.

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Objective 1
Read aloud grade level text with appropriate speed and accuracy.

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  1. Read grade level text at a rate of approximately 80 wpm.
  2. Read grade level text with an accuracy rate of 95-100%.

Objective 2
Read aloud grade level text effortlessly with clarity.

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  1. Read grade level text in three- to four-word phrases using intonation, expression, and punctuation cues.
  2. Read with automaticity 200 second grade high-frequency/sight words.

Standard 6
(Vocabulary): Students learn and use grade level vocabulary to increase understanding and read fluently.

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Objective 1
Learn new words through listening and reading widely.

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  1. Use new vocabulary learned by listening, reading, and discussing a variety of genres.
  2. Learn the meaning of a variety of grade level words (e.g., words from literature, social studies, science, math).

Objective 2
Use multiple resources to learn new words by relating them to known words and/or concepts.

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  1. Use multiple resources to determine the meanings of unknown words (e.g., simple dictionaries, glossaries).
  2. Relate unfamiliar words and concepts to prior knowledge to increase vocabulary (e.g., liquid: milk, water, punch).

Objective 3
Use structural analysis and context clues to determine meanings of words.

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  1. Identify meanings of words using prefixes and suffixes (e.g., do/undo, write/rewrite, happy/happiness, help/helper/helpful).
  2. Use context to determine meanings of unknown key words (e.g., The store clerk glared at the children as they looked at the toys.).
  3. Use context to determine meanings of synonyms, antonyms, homonyms (e.g., sun/son) and multiple-meaning words (e.g., ring).

Standard 7
(Comprehension): Students understand, interpret, and analyze narrative and informational grade level text.

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Objective 1
Identify purposes of text.

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  1. Identify purpose for reading.
  2. Identify author’s purpose.

Objective 2
Apply strategies to comprehend text.

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  1. Relate prior knowledge to make connections to text (e.g., text to text, text to self, text to world).
  2. Ask questions about text read aloud and independently.
  3. Form mental pictures to aid understanding of text.
  4. Make and confirm predictions while reading using title, picture clues, text, and/or prior knowledge.
  5. Make inferences and draw conclusions from text.
  6. Identify topic/main idea from text; note details.
  7. Summarize important ideas/events; summarize supporting details in sequence.
  8. Monitor and clarify understanding applying fix-up strategies while interacting with text.
  9. Compile information from text.

Objective 3
Recognize and use features of narrative and informational text.

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  1. Identify characters, setting, sequence of events, problem/resolution.
  2. Identify different genres: fairy tales, poems, realistic fiction, fantasy, fables, folk tales.
  3. Identify information from pictures, captions, diagrams, charts, graphs, and tables of contents.
  4. Identify different structures in texts (e.g., compare/contrast, cause/effect).
  5. Locate facts from a variety of informational texts (e.g. newspapers, magazines, books, other resources).

Standard 8
(Writing): Students write daily to communicate effectively for a variety of purposes and audiences.

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Objective 1
Prepare to write by gathering and organizing information and ideas (pre-writing).

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  1. Generate ideas for writing by reading, discussing literature and informational text, and reflecting on personal experiences.
  2. Select topics from generated ideas.
  3. Identify audience, purpose, and form for writing.
  4. Use simple graphic organizers to organize information.

Objective 2
Compose a written draft.

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  1. Draft ideas on paper in an organized manner utilizing words and sentences (e.g., beginning, middle, end; main idea; details).
  2. Use voice in writing (e.g., express feelings, opinions).
  3. Select appropriate words to convey meaning.

Objective 3
Revise by elaborating and clarifying a written draft.

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  1. Revise draft to add details, strengthen word choice, and reorder content.
  2. Enhance fluency by using complete sentences.
  3. Revise writing, considering the suggestions of others.

Objective 4
Edit written draft for conventions.

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  1. Edit writing for capitals in names, first word of a sentence, the pronoun “I”, correct punctuation of sentence endings, greetings and closings of letters, dates, and contractions.
  2. Edit for spelling of grade level-appropriate words.
  3. Edit for standard grammar (e.g., subject-verb agreement).
  4. Edit for appropriate formatting features (e.g., margins, indentations, titles).

Objective 5
Use fluent and legible handwriting to communicate.

  1. Write demonstrating mastery of all upper- and lower-case manuscript letters and numerals using proper form, proportions, and spacing.
  2. Increase fluency in forming manuscript letters and numerals.
  3. Produce legible documents with manuscript handwriting.

Objective 6
Write in different forms and genres.

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  1. Produce personal writing (e.g., journals, friendly notes and letters, personal experiences, family stories, literature responses).
  2. Produce traditional and imaginative stories, narrative and formula poetry as an individual/shared writing activity.
  3. Produce informational text (e.g., ABC books, how-to books, observations).
  4. Produce writing to persuade (e.g., express opinions).
  5. Produce functional texts (e.g., lists, labels, signs).
  6. Share writing with others using illustrations, graphs, and/or charts to add meaning.
  7. Publish 4-6 individual products.

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