Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs)
The overarching intent of language arts instruction in grades 7-12 is for students to value,
appreciate, and demonstrate literacy through expressive and receptive language skills, and to
understand and investigate the self, others, the culture, and the environment. The Intended
Learning Outcomes (ILOs) describe the goals for language arts skills and attitudes. They are an
integral part of the Core, and should be included as part of instruction. Process skills in language
arts domains are critical to the development of high levels of literacy and lead to understanding
and internalizing ILOs.
- Demonstrate a Positive Attitude Toward Language Arts Skills and Processes
- Develop confidence in the ability to access text.
- Enjoy the processes and outcomes of reading and writing.
- Develop confidence in the ability to express ideas, emotions, and experiences.
- Demonstrate Appreciation for the Role of Language Arts
- Recognize that the study of themes and values in texts is preparation for responsible
participation in society.
- Use language arts skills and strategies to think critically, communicate with others, and
understand our culture and common heritage.
- Develop thinking and language acquisition together through interactive learning.
- Recognize that in studying language arts students will learn the strategies necessary for
acquiring academic knowledge, achieving common academic standards, and learning
- Demonstrate Understanding of the Nature of Language
- Understand that language enhances and identifies human beings as meaning makers.
- Understand that language is the vehicle for constructing knowledge, acquiring skills, and
developing habits of mind.
- Understand that language captures and records human aspirations and imagination.
- Understand that language is continuously evolving as a reflection of human evolution.
- Understand that language acquisition is not a matter of refining skills, but of increasing
confidence, insight, and discernment.
- Understand that language conveys the depth of human experience, evoking both emotion
- Understand and Use Receptive and Expressi ve Oral Language Skills to Communicate
- Give and seek information in conversations, in group discussions, and in oral
- Use questioning techniques to gain information.
- Participate in and report on small group learning activities.
- Develop and deliver individual presentations.
- Plan, present, and critique the oral delivery of information and persuasive argument.
- Plan, present, and critique dramatic readings of literary selections.
- Use the Skills, Strategies , and Processes of Reading
- Develop an enjoyment for reading as a lifelong way to learn.
- Access background knowledge to prepare to read and enjoy texts.
- Use meta-cognition strategies during reading to monitor comprehension.
- Improve comprehension by using strategies when meaning breaks down.
- Retain information from and respond to text after reading.
- Use the Skills, Strategies , and Processes of Writing
- Develop a distinctive writing voice.
- Understand that writing is a process of skills, strategies, and practices for creating,
revising, and editing a variety of texts.
- Develop reflective abilities and meta-awareness about writing.
- Use writing to discover and explore ideas.
- Develop collaborative writing skills to prepare for workplace writing.
- Understand that writing is a tool for thinking: solving problems, exploring issues,
constructing questions, addressing inquiry.
- Understand that reading and writing are interrelated: writers approach new reading
experiences with enhanced appreciation for the text.
- Appreciate the value of personal writing and writing-to-learn in daily applications of
The needs of ninth grade students transitioning to high school are a fundamental concern to
middle-level language arts teachers. Teachers attempt to meet the unique needs of these students
by using curriculum concepts such as thematic organization, teaming among teachers,
appropriate grouping, and interdisciplinary efforts. At the ninth grade level, the Utah Core
focuses on reading and writing experiences that are developmentally appropriate: vocabulary
instruction that compares connotation with denotation and identifies word meanings using
sentence structure (grammar), reading instruction that focuses on inference and the difference
between interesting and important information in informational text, and character development
and more complex figurative language in narrative and poetry. Writing focuses on comparing
multiple ideas and perspectives to extend thinking through writing, and concentrates on
persuasive writing in preparation for the Utah Basic Skills Test. Skills in analytical evaluation
and assessment of writing become more nuanced, and editing skills are specific and clearly
delineated. Inquiry skills are focused on questioning as a research technique and evaluating
sources of information.
Core Standards of the Course
(Reading): Students will use vocabulary development and an understanding of text elements and structures to comprehend literary and informational grade level text.
(Word Analysis, Vocabulary Development): Determine word meaning through word parts, definitions, and context clues.
Analyze the meaning of words using knowledge of roots (see chart, Appendix A).
Distinguish between the connotative and denotative meanings of words.
Determine word meaning using sentence structure (e.g., parts of speech, grammatical structures).
Distinguish between commonly confused words (i.e., accept/except; advise/advice; council/counsel councilor/counselor; principal/principle; peace/piece; than/then; weather/whether; who/which/that; who's/whose).
(Comprehension of Informational Text): Comprehend and evaluate informational text (i.e., web pages, newspapers, magazines, encyclopedias, maps, schedules).
Analyze the purpose of external text features and structures in a variety of informational texts (e.g., textbooks, advertisements, posters, graphs, charts, maps, schedules, product instructions).
Comprehend text using internal text structures and their appropriate cue words and phrases (i.e., cause/effect, problem/solution).
Infer meaning from implicit information in text.
Distinguish relevant from merely interesting information.
(Comprehension of Literary Text): Comprehend literature by evaluating the contribution to meaning of several literary elements within a work of literature.
Describe how conflict, character, and plot work together.
Explain how character is developed through implication and inference.
Relate themes in literary works to real-life events.
Analyze how setting contributes to characterization, plot, or theme.
Interpret figurative language in literature (i.e., simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole, and symbolism).
Identify the speaker in a poetic text.
(Writing): Students will write informational and literary text to reflect on and recreate experiences, report observations, and persuade others.
(Writing to Learn): Compare multiple ideas and perspectives to extend thinking through writing.
Compare/contrast significant or essential ideas, facts, or events.
Choose facts, events, or ideas and distinguish their differences or demonstrate their similarities.
Compare/contrast connections between texts, between texts and self, and between texts and different world connections.
(Extended Writing): Write to persuade others. (Emphasize persuasive compositions. Students should use the entire writing process to produce at least one extended piece per term, not necessarily limited to the type of writing emphasized at individual grade levels.)
State a thesis that clearly takes a position.
Organize writing effectively using leads, details, transitions, conclusions, personal experience, facts, anecdotes, examples, and paraphrased ideas.
Refute counter-arguments by using personal experience, facts, anecdotes, examples and paraphrased ideas.
(Revision and Editing): Revise and edit to strengthen ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency and conventions.
Evaluate and revise for:
- Ideas: Anticipation of and answers to readers' questions.
- Organization: Inviting leads and satisfying conclusions.
- Voice: A variety of voices for different audiences and purposes.
- Word Choice: Carefully chosen vocabulary to achieve voice and purpose.
- Sentence Fluency: Varied sentence structure (i.e., include complex and compound sentences).
- Correct grade level spelling.
- Correct use of commas in introductory phrases and clauses.
- Correct use of adverbs.
- Correct use of colons.
- Correct use of parentheses.
- Correct capitalization of languages, races, nationalities, religions or sections of the country.
(Inquiry/Research/Oral Presentation): Students will understand the process of seeking and giving information in conversations, group discussions, written reports, and oral presentations.
(Processes of Inquiry): Use the process of inquiry to examine multiple points of view.
Formulate questions to evoke multiple, valid responses from different points of view.
Gather information from multiple sources that reflect varied points of view.
Analyze multiple points of view for credibility.
Use primary and secondary sources.
(Written Communication of Inquiry): Write to analyze multiple points of view.
Select an appropriate format to analyze multiple points of view.
Compile and analyze information from multiple points of view.
Report analysis of multiple points of view using paraphrase, summary, and/or quotations.
Use informal and formal citations where appropriate, to support inquiry.
(Oral Communication of Inquiry): Conduct interviews to support inquiry.
Determine the purpose for interviews (e.g., to examine perspectives, to acquire information, to clarify understanding, to respond to writing).
Ask probing questions to seek elaboration and clarification of ideas.
Make supportive statements to communicate agreement with or acceptance of others' ideas.
Present interview results.
have been produced by and for the teachers of the State of Utah. Copies
of these materials may be freely reproduced for teacher and classroom use.
When distributing these materials, credit should be given to Utah State
Office of Education. These materials may not be published, in whole or part,
or in any other format, without the written permission of the Utah State
Office of Education, 250 East 500 South, PO Box 144200, Salt Lake City,
For more information about this core curriculum, contact the USOE Specialist,
or visit the
Language Arts - Secondary Home Page.
For general questions about Utah's Core Curriculum, contact the USOE Curriculum Director,
Sydnee Dickson .
UEN Contact Info: 801-581-2999 | 800-866-5852 |