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Language Arts - Secondary Curriculum
Language Arts - 9th Grade
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Core Standards of the Course

Standard 1
(Reading): Students will use vocabulary development and an understanding of text elements and structures to comprehend literary and informational grade level text.

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Objective 1
(Word Analysis, Vocabulary Development): Determine word meaning through word parts, definitions, and context clues.

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  1. Analyze the meaning of words using knowledge of roots (see chart, Appendix A).
  2. Distinguish between the connotative and denotative meanings of words.
  3. Determine word meaning using sentence structure (e.g., parts of speech, grammatical structures).
  4. Distinguish between commonly confused words (i.e., accept/except; advise/advice; council/counsel councilor/counselor; principal/principle; peace/piece; than/then; weather/whether; who/which/that; who's/whose).

Objective 2
(Comprehension of Informational Text): Comprehend and evaluate informational text (i.e., web pages, newspapers, magazines, encyclopedias, maps, schedules).

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  1. Analyze the purpose of external text features and structures in a variety of informational texts (e.g., textbooks, advertisements, posters, graphs, charts, maps, schedules, product instructions).
  2. Comprehend text using internal text structures and their appropriate cue words and phrases (i.e., cause/effect, problem/solution).
  3. Infer meaning from implicit information in text.
  4. Distinguish relevant from merely interesting information.

Objective 3
(Comprehension of Literary Text): Comprehend literature by evaluating the contribution to meaning of several literary elements within a work of literature.

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  1. Describe how conflict, character, and plot work together.
  2. Explain how character is developed through implication and inference.
  3. Relate themes in literary works to real-life events.
  4. Analyze how setting contributes to characterization, plot, or theme.
  5. Interpret figurative language in literature (i.e., simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole, and symbolism).
  6. Identify the speaker in a poetic text.

Standard 2
(Writing): Students will write informational and literary text to reflect on and recreate experiences, report observations, and persuade others.

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Objective 1
(Writing to Learn): Compare multiple ideas and perspectives to extend thinking through writing.

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  1. Compare/contrast significant or essential ideas, facts, or events.
  2. Choose facts, events, or ideas and distinguish their differences or demonstrate their similarities.
  3. Compare/contrast connections between texts, between texts and self, and between texts and different world connections.

Objective 2
(Extended Writing): Write to persuade others. (Emphasize persuasive compositions. Students should use the entire writing process to produce at least one extended piece per term, not necessarily limited to the type of writing emphasized at individual grade levels.)

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  1. State a thesis that clearly takes a position.
  2. Organize writing effectively using leads, details, transitions, conclusions, personal experience, facts, anecdotes, examples, and paraphrased ideas.
  3. Refute counter-arguments by using personal experience, facts, anecdotes, examples and paraphrased ideas.

Objective 3
(Revision and Editing): Revise and edit to strengthen ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency and conventions.

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  1. Evaluate and revise for:
    • Ideas: Anticipation of and answers to readers' questions.
    • Organization: Inviting leads and satisfying conclusions.
    • Voice: A variety of voices for different audiences and purposes.
    • Word Choice: Carefully chosen vocabulary to achieve voice and purpose.
    • Sentence Fluency: Varied sentence structure (i.e., include complex and compound sentences).
  2. Edit for:
    • Correct grade level spelling.
    • Correct use of commas in introductory phrases and clauses.
    • Correct use of adverbs.
    • Correct use of colons.
    • Correct use of parentheses.
    • Correct capitalization of languages, races, nationalities, religions or sections of the country.

Standard 3
(Inquiry/Research/Oral Presentation): Students will understand the process of seeking and giving information in conversations, group discussions, written reports, and oral presentations.

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Objective 1
(Processes of Inquiry): Use the process of inquiry to examine multiple points of view.

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  1. Formulate questions to evoke multiple, valid responses from different points of view.
  2. Gather information from multiple sources that reflect varied points of view.
  3. Analyze multiple points of view for credibility.
  4. Use primary and secondary sources.

Objective 2
(Written Communication of Inquiry): Write to analyze multiple points of view.

  1. Select an appropriate format to analyze multiple points of view.
  2. Compile and analyze information from multiple points of view.
  3. Report analysis of multiple points of view using paraphrase, summary, and/or quotations.
  4. Use informal and formal citations where appropriate, to support inquiry.

Objective 3
(Oral Communication of Inquiry): Conduct interviews to support inquiry.

  1. Determine the purpose for interviews (e.g., to examine perspectives, to acquire information, to clarify understanding, to respond to writing).
  2. Ask probing questions to seek elaboration and clarification of ideas.
  3. Make supportive statements to communicate agreement with or acceptance of others' ideas.
  4. Present interview results.

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