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Continents - Antarctica

map of Antarctica Antarctica is the second smallest continent after Australia. It is the coldest, windiest, highest, driest, and least populated of the continents. It receives so little precipitation that it is also the world's largest cold desert.

On the surface, Antarctica may seem very similar to the Arctic, but the two areas are, in fact, very different. The Arctic is an oceanic basin lying beneath a thin layer of ice. Antarctica is a land continent buried under a permanent ice sheet and surrounded by ocean. The ice sheet that covers almost all of Antarctica is more than a mile thick. Beneath the weight of the ice sheet, the rocky surface of Antarctica often sinks thousands of feet below sea level.

In the ocean around Antarctica is a unique zone known as the Antarctic Convergence. At this convergence, cold water meets warmer water from the north. This mix nurtures the plants and animals, such as krill, that attract whales and make these waters the most fertile and biologically productive on earth.

Components of Antarctica include the Transantarctic Mountains which run across the continent from north to south and a flat central portion called the Polar Plateau. Surrounding the whole continent is a vast, floating sheet of ice. In the winter, this sea ice extends for 7,300,000 square miles.

Antarctica is like a living laboratory. More than 30 major research stations perch on the ice. Most are found along the coast, but a few exist even in the continent's interior, including one at the South Pole itself. Many are occupied year-round, and others only seasonally. Important research goes on in the intense cold. Scientists study the ice sheet for possible effects of global warming. Researchers monitor the hole in the ozone layer--the layer of gases in the atmosphere that shields the earth from the sun's ultraviolet rays. Others examine tiny marine organisms called plankton for changes caused by increased radiation. Paleontologists scour exposed rocks for fossils, evidence that the continent once lay farther north, attached to South America, Africa, and Australia. Because of Antarctica's importance to science, 43 member countries of the Antarctic Treaty agreed, in 1991, to ban all mining and oil exploration for 50 years, preserving this unusual continent for science.

Antarctica is not a country. It does not belong to any one country, either. Seven nations have claimed portions of the continent. Since 1959, 43 countries have signed the Antarctic Treaty. In it, they agree to work with each other in their scientific research. They also agree to forbid military action and nuclear explosions.

Sample these internet sites and complete the activities for each one to learn more about our coldest continent.

CIA World Factbook - Antarctica

  1. How large is Antarctica in square kilometers? Convert this to square miles. By comparison, how large is the United States> in square miles? How large is Brazil> in square miles? How large is Utah in square miles? How large is Texas in square miles?
  2. Which is colder--east Antarctica or west Antarctica?
  3. What percentage of Antarctica is thick continental ice sheet? What percentage is barren rock?
  4. What is the lowest point on the continent. What is the highest? This highest point is given in meters. Convert> this to feet. By comparison, how high is Mt. McKinley (the highest mountain in the United States)? How high is King's Peak (the highest point in Utah).
  5. Antarctica has no indigenous inhabitants, but there are seasonally staffed research stations. How many research stations are there?

Antarctic Timeline

  1. Who was the first person to see the Antarctic continent? What country was he from?
  2. Who was (arguably according to this site) the first person to land on the continent?
  3. What explorer and his crew became the first to survive an Antarctic winter? (Their ship was trapped in the ice pack off the Antarctic peninsula).
  4. What explorer and his crew became the first to winter over on the continent?
  5. What 3 men were the first to reach the south pole? In what year did they do it?
  6. What notable accomplishment did Roald Amundsen make?
  7. Read through the information about the early explorers of Antarctica. What profession did most of them have?


  1. What oceans surround Antarctica?

Virtual Antarctica - Climate>

  1. Why is it important to wear dark glasses when you are outside in Antarctica?
  2. What problems does the low humidity in Antarctica cause for humans and buildings?

Virtual Antarctica - Temperatures

  1. What effect does the tilt of the vertical axis of the earth have on Antarctica? (It has the same effect on the northern Arctic areas).
  2. Why is it colder in Antarctica than in the Arctic?
  3. The lowest temperature ever recorded on earth was in Antarctica. What was it and when and where was it recorded? At this extremely cold temperature, what will happen to steel and water?

Virtual Antarctica - Windiest Continent

  1. How fast do winds frequently blow on Antarctica?
  2. What are katabatic winds?
  3. What is a white-out?

Live From Antarctica2

From the menu on the left, click on "Researcher Q & A". Then click on "To see the current list of questions and answers, click here." Then click on "New Questions".

  1. Are there orca whales in the Antarctic?
  2. Do penguins bite? If so, what damage do they cause and what do research scientists do to protect themselves?
  3. How do dead animals on Antarctica decompose since it is so cold?
  4. How big are the smallest penguin eggs and the largest penguin eggs in Antarctica and which penguins do they come from?
  5. How do penguins drink water?
  6. How do penguins avoid predators like orca whales and leopard seals?
  7. Could a polar bear probably survive in Antarctica? Why or why not?
  8. How are the Arctic and Antarctic the same? How are they different?
  9. What is the most common penguin in the Antarctic?
  10. What is the most common penguin in the world?
  11. Describe the incubation process for a penguin egg. (Male penguins are pretty dedicated fathers!)

Antarctica FAQ

This information is from an Antarctic scientist named Chris Bero who is living at the South Pole.

  1. Is there a pole at the South Pole? If so, what does it look like?
  2. How cold does it get in the winter? (Remember, this continent is south of the equator so the seasons are opposite of ours in North America. Summer is in November, December, and January.)
  3. How many other people live there?


National Geographic World Atlas for Young Explorers. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1998.

Sayre, April Pulley. Antarctica. Brookfield, Conn.: Twenty-First Century Books, 1998.

Simon, Noel. Nature in Danger. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Teacher Resources

Antarctica Lesson Plans

Lesson plans on insulation, time zones, temperature, and solar energy.

Visit the Utah Education Network's Our World web site for information on the other six continents and all of the countries around the globe.

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