Secondary Mathematics I

Strand: GEOMETRY - Congruence (G.CO)

Experiment with transformations in the plane. Build on student experience with rigid motions from earlier grades (Standards G.CO.1-5). Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions. Rigid motions are at the foundation of the definition of congruence. Reason from the basic properties of rigid motions (that they preserve distance and angle), which are assumed without proof. Rigid motions and their assumed properties can be used to establish the usual triangle congruence criteria, which can then be used to prove other theorems (Standards G.CO.6-8). Make geometric constructions (Standards G.CO.12-13).

Standard G.CO.6

Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent.

• 3D Transmographer
This lesson contains an applet that allows students to explore translations, reflections, and rotations.
• Are the Triangles Congruent?
The purpose of this task is primarily assessment-oriented, asking students to demonstrate knowledge of how to determine the congruency of triangles.
• Building a tile pattern by reflecting hexagons
This task applies reflections to a regular hexagon to construct a pattern of six hexagons enclosing a seventh: the focus of the task is on using the properties of reflections to deduce this seven hexagon pattern.
• Building a tile pattern by reflecting octagons
This task applies reflections to a regular octagon to construct a pattern of four octagons enclosing a quadrilateral: the focus of the task is on using the properties of reflections to deduce that the quadrilateral is actually a square.
• GEOMETRY - Congruence (G.CO) - Sec Math I Core Guide
The Utah State Board of Education (USBE) and educators around the state of Utah developed these guides for the Secondary Mathematics I - Congruence (G.CO).
• Geometry in Tessellations
In this lesson students will learn about lines, angles, planes, and experiment with the area and perimeter of polygons.
• Introduction to the Materials (Math 1)
Introduction to the Materials in the Mathematics One of the The MVP classroom experience begins by confronting students with an engaging task and then invites them to grapple with solving it. As students ideas emerge, take form, and are shared, the teacher orchestrates the student discussions and explorations towards a focused mathematical goal. As conjectures are made and explored, they evolve into mathematical concepts that the community of learners begins to embrace as effective strategies for analyzing and solving problems.
• Module 6: Transformations & Symmetry - Student Edition (Math 1)
The Mathematics Vision Project, Secondary Math One Module 6, Transformations and Symmetry, builds on students experiences with rigid motion in earlier grades to formalize the definitions of translation, rotation, and reflection.
• Module 6: Transformations & Symmetry - Teacher Notes (Math 1)
The Mathematics Vision Project, Secondary Math One Module 6 Teacher Notes, Transformations and Symmetry, builds on students experiences with rigid motion in earlier grades to formalize the definitions of translation, rotation, and reflection.
• Module 7: Congruence, Construction & Proof - Student Edition (Math 1)
The Mathematics Vision Project, Secondary Math One Module 7, Congruence, Construction, and Proof, begins by developing constructions as another tool to be used to reason about figures and to justify properties of shapes. Individual constructions are not taught for the sake of memorizing a series of steps, but rather to reason using known properties of shapes such as circles.
• Module 7: Congruence, Construction & Proof - Teacher Notes (Math 1)
The Mathematics Vision Project, Secondary Math One Module 7 Teacher Notes, Congruence, Construction, and Proof, begins by developing constructions as another tool to be used to reason about figures and to justify properties of shapes. Individual constructions are not taught for the sake of memorizing a series of steps, but rather to reason using known properties of shapes such as circles.
• Properties of Congruent Triangles
The goal of this task is to understand how congruence of triangles, defined in terms of rigid motions, relates to the corresponding sides and angles of these triangles.
• Reflections and Equilateral Triangles
This activity is one in a series of tasks using rigid transformations of the plane to explore symmetries of classes of triangles, with this task in particular focusing on the class of equilaterial triangles.
• Reflections and Equilateral Triangles II
This task examines some of the properties of reflections of the plane which preserve an equilateral triangle: these were introduced in ''Reflections and Isosceles Triangles'' and ''Reflection and Equilateral Triangles I''.
• Reflections and Isosceles Triangles
This activity is one in a series of tasks using rigid transformations of the plane to explore symmetries of classes of triangles, with this task in particular focussing on the class of isosceles triangles.
• Tessellations: Geometry and Symmetry
Students can explore polygons, symmetry, and the geometric properties of tessellations in this lesson.
• Translations, Reflections, and Rotations
Students are introduced to the concepts of translation, reflection and rotation in this lesson plan.
• Visual Patterns in Tessellations
In this lesson students will learn about types of polygons and tessellation patterns around us.
• When Does SSA Work to Determine Triangle Congruence?
The triangle congruence criteria, SSS, SAS, ASA, all require three pieces of information. It is interesting, however, that not all three pieces of information about sides and angles are sufficient to determine a triangle up to congruence. In this problem, we considered SSA. Also insufficient is AAA, which determines a triangle up to similarity. Unlike SSA, AAS is sufficient because two pairs of congruent angles force the third pair of angles to also be congruent.
• Why Does ASA Work?
The two triangles in this problem share a side so that only one rigid transformation is required to exhibit the congruence between them. In general more transformations are required and the "Why does SSS work?'' and "Why does SAS work?'' problems show how this works.
• Why does SAS work?
For these particular triangles, three reflections were necessary to express how to move from ABC to DEF. Sometimes, however, one reflection or two reflections will suffice. Since any rigid motion will take triangle ABC to a congruent triangle DEF, this shows the remarkable fact that any rigid motion of the plane can be expressed as one reflection, a composition of two reflections, or a composition of three reflections.
• Why does SSS work?
This particular sequence of transformations which exhibits a congruency between triangles ABC and DEF used one translation, one rotation, and one reflection.

http://www.uen.org - in partnership with Utah State Board of Education (USBE) and Utah System of Higher Education (USHE).  Send questions or comments to USBE Specialist - Lindsey  Henderson and see the Mathematics - Secondary website. For general questions about Utah's Core Standards contact the Director - Jennifer  Throndsen.

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