# Math - Secondary Math II

Introduction

THE FOCUS OF SECONDARY MATHEMATICS II is on quadratic expressions, equations, and functions and on comparing their characteristics and behavior to those of linear and exponential relationships from Secondary Mathematics I as organized into six critical areas, or units. The need for extending the set of rational numbers arises, and real and complex numbers are introduced so that all quadratic equations can be solved. The link between probability and data is explored through conditional probability and counting methods, including their use in making and evaluating decisions. The study of similarity leads to an understanding of right triangle trigonometry and connects to quadratics through Pythagorean relationships. Circles, with their quadratic algebraic representations, round out the course. The Mathematical Practice Standards apply throughout each course and, together with the content standards, prescribe that students experience mathematics as a coherent, useful, and logical subject that makes use of their ability to make sense of problem situations.

CRITICAL AREA 1: Students extend the laws of exponents to rational exponents and explore distinctions between rational and irrational numbers by considering their decimal representations. Students learn that when quadratic equations do not have real solutions the number system must be extended so that solutions exist, analogous to the way in which extending the whole numbers to the negative numbers allows x+1 = 0 to have a solution. Students explore relationships between number systems: whole numbers, integers, rational numbers, real numbers, and complex numbers. The guiding principle is that equations with no solutions in one number system may have solutions in a larger number system.

CRITICAL AREA 2: Students consider quadratic functions, comparing the key characteristics of quadratic functions to those of linear and exponential functions. They select from among these functions to model phenomena. Students learn to anticipate the graph of a quadratic function by interpreting various forms of quadratic expressions. In particular, they identify the real solutions of a quadratic equation as the zeros of a related quadratic function. When quadratic equations do not have real solutions, students learn that the graph of the related quadratic function does not cross the horizontal axis. They expand their experience with functions to include more specialized functions—absolute value, step, and those that are piecewise-defined.

CRITICAL AREA 3: Students begin this unit by focusing on the structure of expressions, rewriting expressions to clarify and reveal aspects of the relationship they represent. They create and solve equations, inequalities, and systems of equations involving exponential and quadratic expressions.

CRITICAL AREA 4: Building on probability concepts that began in the middle grades, students use the languages of set theory to expand their ability to compute and interpret theoretical and experimental probabilities for compound events, attending to mutually exclusive events, independent events, and conditional probability. Students should make use of geometric probability models wherever possible. They use probability to make informed decisions.

CRITICAL AREA 5: Students apply their earlier experience with dilations and proportional reasoning to build a formal understanding of similarity. They identify criteria for similarity of triangles, use similarity to solve problems, and apply similarity in right triangles to understand right triangle trigonometry, with particular attention to special right triangles and the Pythagorean Theorem. It is in this unit that students develop facility with geometric proof. They use what they know about congruence and similarity to prove theorems involving lines, angles, triangles, and other polygons. They explore a variety of formats for writing proofs.

CRITICAL AREA 6: Students prove basic theorems about circles, such as a tangent line is perpendicular to a radius, inscribed angle theorem, and theorems about chords, secants, and tangents dealing with segment lengths and angle measures. In the Cartesian coordinate system, students use the distance formula to write the equation of a circle when given the radius and the coordinates of its center, and the equation of a parabola with vertical axis when given an equation of its directrix and the coordinates of its focus. Given an equation of a circle, they draw the graph in the coordinate plane, and apply techniques for solving quadratic equations to determine intersections between lines and circles or a parabola and between two circles. Students develop informal arguments justifying common formulas for circumference, area, and volume of geometric objects, especially those related to circles.

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