Objective 1: Describe the chemical and physical properties of various substances.
a. Differentiate between chemical and physical properties.
One Of These Things Is Not Like The Other!
b. Classify substances based on their chemical and physical properties (e.g., reacts with water, does not react with water, flammable or nonflammable, hard or soft, flexible or nonflexible, evaporates or melts at room temperature).
Sort It Out!
c. Investigate and report on the chemical and physical properties of a particular substance.
Objective 2: Observe and evaluate evidence of chemical and physical change.
a. Identify observable evidence of a physical change (e.g., change in shape, size, phase.)
Causes of Phase Change
b. Identify observable evidence of a chemical change (e.g., color change, heat and/or light being given off, gas being given off, a change in odor.)
c. Observe and describe chemical reactions involving atmospheric oxygen (e.g., rust, fire, respiration, and photosynthesis.)
Help Me, I'm Oxidizing or Rusting!
d. Investigate the effects of chemical change on physical properties of substances (e.g., cooking a raw egg, iron rusting, and polymerization of a resin.)
Objective 3: Investigate and measure the effects of increasing or decreasing the amount of energy in a physical or chemical change, and relate the kind of energy added to the motion of the particles.
a. Identify the kinds of energy (e.g., heat, light, sound) given off or taken in when a substance undergoes a chemical or physical change.
Kinds of Energy
b. Relate the amount of energy added or taken away from a substance to the motion of molecules in the substance.
c. Measure and graph the relationship between the states of water and changes in its temperature.
Measuring Phase Changes
d. Cite evidence showing that heat may be given off or taken in during a chemical change (e.g. striking a match, mixing vinegar and antacid, mixing ammonium chloride and water.)
Brrr ... It Is Cold!
e. Plan and conduct an experiment, and report the effect of adding or removing energy on the chemical and physical changes.
Makin' Ice Cream
Objective 4: Identify the observable features of chemical reactions.
a. Identify the reactants and products in a given chemical change, and describe the presence of the same atoms in both the reactants and products.
Before and After
b. Cite examples of common significant chemical reactions (i.e., photosynthesis, respiration, combustion, rusting) in daily life.
c. Demonstrate that mass is conserved in a chemical reaction (e.g. mix two solutions that result in a color change or formation of a precipitate, weigh the solutions before and after mixing.)
d. Experiment with variables affecting the relative rates of chemical changes (e.g., heating, cooling, stirring, crushing, and concentration.)
My Stomach Hurts!
e. Research and report on how engineers have applied principles of chemistry to an application encountered in daily life (e.g., heat-resistant plastic handles on pans, rust-resistant paints on highway bridges).
You Be The Engineer!
STANDARD II: Students will understand that energy from sunlight is changed to chemical energy in plants, transfers between living organisms, and that changing the environment may alter the amount of energy provided to living organisms.
Objective 1: Compare ways that plants and animals obtain and use energy.
a. Recognize the importance of photosynthesis in using light energy as part of the chemical process that builds plant materials.
Prove Plant Materials Are In It!
b. Explain how respiration in animals is a process that converts food energy into mechanical and heat energy.
c. Trace the path of energy from the sun to mechanical energy in an organism (e.g., sunlight - light energy to plants by photosynthesis to sugars - stored chemical energy to respiration in muscle cell - usable chemical energy to muscle contraction- mechanical energy).
Oh Where, Oh Where Did The Energy Go?
Objective 2: Generalize the dependent relationships between organisms.
a. Categorize the relationships between organisms (i.e., producer/consumer, predator/prey, mutualism, parasitism) and provide examples of each.
Food Chain Practice!
b. Use models to trace the flow of energy in food chains and food webs.
The Food Web Mobile
c. Formulate and test a hypothesis on the effects of air, temperature, water, or light on plants. (e.g., seed germination, growth rates, seasonal adaptations).
d. Research multiple ways that different scientists have investigated the same ecosystem.
The Rainforest and the Scientist
Objective 3: Analyze human influence on the capacity of an environment to sustain living things.
a. Describe specific examples of how humans have changed the capacity of an environment to support specific life forms (e.g., people create wetlands and nesting boxes that increase the number and range of wood ducks, acid rain damages amphibian eggs and reduces population of frogs, clear cutting forests affects squirrel populations, suburban sprawl reduces mule deer winter range thus decreasing numbers of deer).
Hot or Cold
b. Distinguish between inference and evidence in a newspaper or magazine article relating to the effect of humans on the environment.
What's in the News?
c. Infer the potential effects of humans on a specific food web.
Here, Let Me Fix It!
d. Evaluate and present arguments for and against allowing a specific species of plant or animal to become extinct, and relate the argument to the flow of energy in an ecosystem.
Extinct or Not!
Objective 1: Compare rocks and minerals and describe how they are related.
a. Recognize that rocks are composed of minerals.
Rocks and Minerals
b. Observe and describe the minerals found in rocks (e.g. shape, color, luster, texture, hardness.)
What's My Story?
Objective 2: Describe the nature of the changes that rocks undergo over long periods of time.
a. Diagram and explain the rock cycle.
Change Is The Name Of The Game
b. Describe the role of energy in the processes that change rock materials over time.
A Chip Off The Old Rock!
c. Use a model to demonstrate how erosion changes the surface of Earth.
Weathering and Erosion
d. Relate gravity to changes in Earth's surface.
Gravity An Agent Of Erosion
e. Identify the role of weathering of rocks in soil formation.
Weathering and Soil Formation
f. Describe and model the processes of fossil formation.
You Don't Look a Day Over 2000 Years!
Objective 3: Describe how rock and fossil evidence is used to infer Earth's history.
a. Describe how the deposition of rock materials produces layering of sedimentary rocks over time.
The Laying of Sedimentary Rocks Over Time
b. Identify the assumptions scientists make to determine relative ages of rock layers.
c. Explain why some sedimentary rock layers may not always appear with youngest rock on top and older rocks below (i.e., folding, faulting, unconformity).
Move Over, I'm Coming Through!
d. Research how fossils show evidence of the changing surface of the Earth.
Were You There?
e. Propose why more recently deposited rock layers are more likely to contain fossils resembling existing species than older rock layers.
Hide And Seek or ... Where Am I Now?
Objective 4: Compare rapid and gradual changes to Earth's surface.
a. Describe how energy from the Earth's interior causes changes to Earth's surface (i.e., earthquakes and volcanoes.)
Rock and Roll
b. Describe how earthquakes and volcanoes transfer energy from Earth's interior to the surface (e.g., seismic waves transfer mechanical energy, flowing magma transfers heat and mechanical energy).
c. Model the process of energy build up and release in earthquakes.
Make Your Own Earthquake
d. Investigate and report possible reasons why the best engineering or ecological practices are not always followed in making decisions about building roads, dams, and other structures.
Dams, Road Building And The Environment
e. Model how small changes over time add up to major changes to Earth's surface.
Need A Little Change?
Objective 1: Investigate the movement of energy through various materials.
a. Relate the energy of a wave to wavelength.
b. Compare the movement of energy (i.e., sound, light, earthquake waves, heat) through various mediums.
How Fast Does Sound Move?
c. Describe the spread of energy away from an energy-producing source.
d. Compare the movement of heat by conduction, convection, and radiation and provide examples of each.
Modeling Heat Movement
e. Demonstrate how white light can be separated into the visible color spectrum.
Finding Color In Light!
Objective 2: Examine the force exerted on objects by gravity.
a. Distinguish between mass and weight.
Weight and Mass
b. Cite examples of how Earth's gravitational force on an object depends upon the mass of the object.
You Crack Me Up!
c. Describe how Earth's gravitational force on an object depends upon the distance of the object from the Earth.
The Gravity Way!
d. Design and build structures to support a load.
The Bridge Builder
e. Engineer (design and build) a machine that uses gravity to accomplish a task.
Rock and Roll Mania
Objective 3: Investigate the application of forces that act on objects, and the resulting motion.
a. Calculate the mechanical advantage created by a lever.
Levers Are Useful Tools!
b. Engineer a device that uses levers or inclined planes to create a mechanical advantage.
c. Engineer a device that uses friction to control the motion of an object.
d. Design, and build a complex machine capable of doing a specified task.
Complex Machines for Simple Tasks!
e. Investigate the principles used to engineer changes in forces and motion.
Changing Force and Motion
Objective 4: Analyze various forms of energy and how living organisms sense and respond to energy.
a. Analyze the cyclic nature of potential and kinetic energy (e.g., a bouncing ball, pendulum.)
Potential and Kinetic Energy
b. Trace the conversion of energy from one form of energy to another (e.g., light to chemical to mechanical.)
The Energy Family
c. Cite examples of how organisms sense various types of energy.
d. Investigate and report the response of various organisms to changes in energy (e.g., plant response to light, human response to motion, sound, light, insects response to changes in light intensity).
The Case of the Disappearing Chlorophyll!
e. Investigate and describe how engineers have developed devices to help us sense various types of energy (e.g., seismographs, eyeglasses, telescopes, hearing aids).
Devices to Perceive Energy