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Biological Energy - Science Language
Capacity
A reference to the amount of organisms that are able to live in a certain area of the environment.
Chemical energy
A form of energy that is stored in fuels, food, and other chemicals.
Competition
A type of ecological relationship in which two or more organisms attempt to use the same resource.
Consumer
An organism that gets its energy by eating other organisms, also called a heterotroph.
Decomposer
An organism in the food web that breaks down substances back into their basic chemical building blocks and puts them back in usable form into the environment.
Energy flow
The paths that energy from the sun goes through from plants to animals.
Energy transformation
The process of converting energy from one form to another. An example is sunlight being used by a plant and changing to sugars.
Environment
Everything in an organism's surroundings. This includes living things (the biotic part of the environment) as well as the non-living things (the abiotic part of the environment).
Extinction
When a species no longer is in existence.
Food chain
A representation showing the path of energy transfer within an ecosystem.
Food web
A representation showing how energy moves through an ecosystem in a complex network of feeding relationships.
Mechanical energy
The energy found in moving objects.  
Mutualism
A type of ecological relationship that benefits all of the organisms involved.  
Parasitism
A type of ecological relationship in which one organism lives on or in another organism. The organism that lives on another organism absorbs nutrients from it.  
Photosynthesis
A chemical reaction that occurs in plants. Using light energy, plants change carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) to sugar (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2). The reaction is written as:
6CO2+6H2O C6H12O6+6O2  
Predator
A type of ecological relationship in which one organism that kills and eats another organism.
Prey
A type of ecological relationship in which this organism is killed and eaten by a predator.
Producer
An organism that can make its own food from the sun's energy. It may also be called an autotroph. Generally such organisms are plants.
Respiration
The process of using oxygen (O2) to break down sugar (C6H12O6) into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). This reaction is the opposite of photosynthesis. Instead of using energy, energy is given off. The reaction is usually written as:
6C6H12O6+6O2 6CO2+6H2O
Solar energy
Energy from the sun.
utah state board of education This Sci-ber Text was developed by the Utah State Board of Education and Utah educators.