Science - 2nd Grade
Standard 2 Objective 1
This lesson is designed to get students thinking about the uses of rocks in the world around them.
Easy Field Guide to Rock Art Symbols of the Southwest, by Rick Harris; ISBN 0935810587
How We Use Rock, by Chris Oxlade; ISBN 1410909964
Looking at Rocks, by Jennifer Dussling; ISBN 0448425165
Native American Rock Art: Messages from the Past, by Yvette Lapierre; ISBN 1565660641
Rock Art of Utah, by Polly Schaafsma; ISBN 0874804353
Utah Rock Art Research Association, P.O. Box 511324, Salt Lake City, UT 84151-1324, http://www.utahrockart.org/
This lesson is designed to get students thinking about the uses of rocks in the world around them. Special focus needs to be placed on 'why' the rock would be suitable for use. It is important that students learn that soft rocks would be unsuitable for buildings or arrowheads, and that hard rocks would be a poor choice for a chalk substitute or for creating a petroglyph.
There are some obvious opportunities to teach more about the culture of the Native Americans at the end of this lesson. There are also opportunities to discuss how we can respect rock art and other ancient artifacts in our state.
The term 'petroglyph' will need to be introduced to most students. It describes art that is carved, scratched, or pecked into rock. It is not interchangeable with the term 'pictograph,' which describes art that is painted onto rock.
The plaster of Paris used in this lesson can be easily and inexpensively obtained from a hardware store in the paint and spackle area. It is a rock product that is similar in composition to limestone. The plaster of Paris powder is mixed with water and sets up within an hour. The plaster can be poured into paper plates, Styrofoam meat trays, or a shallow cookie sheet. If the plaster of paris pieces are painted a dark earth tone, the picture the students etch will be more visible.
1. Demonstrate a positive learning attitude.
5. Understand and use basic concepts and skills.
Invitation to Learn
Show pictures or examples of rocks, one at a time, and encourage student responses about how the rock could be used. Show pictures or examples of how the rock was used. Discuss why that rock was a good choice for that use (for example: granite is a good choice for countertops because it polishes smooth and is very hard).
Curriculum Extensions/Adaptations/ Integration
Hänze, M., & Berger, R. (2007). Cooperative learning, motivational effects, and student characteristics: An experimental study comparing cooperative learning and direct instruction in 12th grade physics classes. Learning and Instruction. 17(1), 29-41.
Researchers compared student achievement in classrooms with cooperative learning instruction and traditional direct instruction. The method of instruction was found to interact with student's self- concept; students with low academic self-concept profited more from cooperative learning instruction than from direct instruction because they experienced a feeling of greater competency.
Mintz. E. & Calhoun, J. (2004). Project Notebook: Science notebooks emerge. Science and Children. 42(3), 30-34.
Teachers from South Carolina attempting to meet the needs of their diverse student population, create a program implementing science notebooks. They believed that science could be used as a vehicle for increasing student achievement across the curriculum. Science notebooks, used in conjunction with an inquiry-based science curriculum, emerged as the natural vehicle for helping to create an effective science program.