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About Teaching Mathematics, A K-8 Resource, by Marilyn Burns; ISBN 978-0-941355-76-6
Background For Teachers:
Before beginning the activity, materials must be gathered so that each group has a set of courses. Classes can be arranged into groups of 12. Within the group, students will work in pairs so one group has 6 pairs. This way, each pair will be working one course and a bell can serve as a signal to switch to a new course. Student’s only knowledge should be an understanding of what it means to share equally. They must also understand the term remainder or leftovers for this activity. As students complete the activity, teachers must be aware of clean up and keep students aware also to prevent the loss of items, thus changing the results from pair to pair.
The two division games are ways to encourage students to use
mental math, practice math facts and develop number sense in terms
of relating division to other operations. Several variations may be
used for each game after the students have become familiar with
the structure of the game. These activities also serve as good center
activities and can be utilized in that manner once the games have been
taught within the whole class. Division tiles are self-checking and
thus eliminate the need for the teacher to verify student work. No
Remainder reinforces the rules of divisibility also.
Intended Learning Outcomes:
3. Reason logically, using inductive and deductive strategies and justify conclusions.
4. Communicate mathematical ideas and arguments coherently to peers, teachers, and others using the precise language and notation of mathematics.
On separate laminated cards, have written division problems and a matching card with the answer. Spread the cards in the center of the room. Each person picks up a card and searches for the matching card. When a match is found, students perform 5 jumping jacks (or other physical activity as designated) while saying the problem and answer. Cards are placed in a stack and the activity continues until all cards are matched. This activity promotes getting students out of their chairs and active while learning.
Gregg, J. & Underwood Gregg, D. (2007). Interpreting the Standard Division Algorithm in a “Candy Factory” Context. Teaching Children Mathematics. 14(1) 25-31.
Using a candy factory context for a problem solving activity, students were better able to develop a deeper understanding of the mathematical concepts behind the algorithm of division. The problem- solving design allows students to develop their own strategies to understand the concept of division.
Weiss, D.F. (2006) Keeping It Real: The Rational for Using Manipulatives in the Middle Grades. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle Schools. 11(5)238-242.
Reviews of research show that manipulatives are effective as a learning tool. It is not the manipulative itself leading to understanding but the activity in which the students are engaged and using the tools to aid learning. Students should be comfortable using manipulatives so as to not add an additional layer of frustration to the activity.
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