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Main Curriculum Tie:
Background For Teachers:
All carbohydrates are composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O), and contain the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen as occurs in water. Carbohydrates are identified by the number of saccharide units in their structure.
Sugars and starches are carbohydrates. Sugar is the quick energy source for cells in both plants and animals, excluding humans. When sugars are digested in the cells, they are oxidized.
Oxidation occurs when oxygen molecules interact with other molecules and strip away some of their electrons. (the Epicurean Laboratory, p.5). Starch is formed by many sugar molecules bonding together. Sugar molecules also bond to starch to form crystals. Oxygen molecules have an affinity for electrons and will pull them away from any other molecule that has electrons in weak or loose bonds.
Oxidation of a molecule changes the original appearance and properties of the molecule. It also releases energy held in a molecule's bonds. For example, when wood burns, the oxygen in the air reacts with wood, the becomes ashes, energy is released. DNA in cells masterminds oxidation.
Intended Learning Outcomes:
As a PREASSESSMENT, the students will respond to a series of questions about sugars. This quiz many be given orally or on paper. This preassessment should not be graded. It is very possible that only a few students will be able to respond correctly. the teacher can use a poor response to point out that the purpose of the unit of study is to explore the concepts of the questions in the quiz. It is OK for students to guess at answers on a preassessment.
NOTE TO TEACHER: If you do not feel comfortable with this option, ask a science teacher for assistance in presenting the concepts to the students and overseeing the activities with you.
The teacher will have the students use the computer, choose a symbol, graphically construct sugar molecules, and then show them bonded together to form starch molecules.
Observe, compare, and discuss results of the displays.
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