Curriculum Tie: Group Size: Small Groups


Summary: These activities require students to create different types of graphs.
Main Curriculum Tie: Mathematics Grade 6 Strand: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY (6.SP) Standard 6.SP.5 Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by: Materials: 24 Hour Circle Graphs
Candy Bar Graphs
Moon Graphs
 Moon phase of student’s birth
 String
Additional Resources
Books
Navigating Through Data Analysis in Grades 68, by Bright, Brewer, McClain, and Mooney;
ISBN 0873535472
Attachments
Web Sites
Background For Teachers: In sixth grade, students should know a variety of different graphs,
as well as being introduced to scatter plots (or scatterplots) and circle
graphs (or pie charts). Stemandleaf plots, bar graphs, line graphs, and
line plots should have been introduced in previous grades. All graphs
and plots require appropriate labels and titles. Here is a brief summary
and examples of some of the graphs students should be comfortable
with reading and creating:
LINE PLOT: A line plot is a quick way to arrange data. The values
of data are listed on the horizontal axis, and an X is placed above the
axis to represent one item.
Height of Sixth Graders in Ms. Stout’s Class












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BAR GRAPH: A bar graph is one of the most commonly used and
easy to read graphs. Bar graphs show frequency of defined data values
in a set of data. The length of the bar shows the frequency of the data
for that item. Bars may be drawn horizontally or vertically and should
be the same width to avoid confusion. Stacked bar graphs and double
(or triple, quadruple, etc.) bar graphs compare additional sets of data
within the same graph. Below is an example of a triple bar graph.
CIRCLE GRAPH: Also known as a pie chart, this graph is
partitioned in different segments equaling one hundred percent. This
graph is great for comparing data within a set and is very visual.
STEMANDLEAF PLOT: Also known as a stem plot, this graph
separates the tens place from the ones place (or hundreds and tens
from ones). This is minimizes confusion for the viewer because
there are less digits; also, it creates a graph to show the frequency of
numbers within the tens digits. The tens digits are the stems and the
ones digits are the leaves. Each leaf represents one of the pieces of data.
To make reading the graph simpler, the leaves should be in numerical
order. A backtoback stem plot can be used to compare two sets of
data.
LINE GRAPH: This graph type is great for showing data over time.
The time is shown on the horizontal axis and the other data is on the
vertical axis. The points are plotted based on the correlation of the time
and the data. The points are connected together by line segments. This
creates a visual way of seeing the data change over periods of time. The
scale of the vertical axis can greatly change the way the information
looks.
SCATTER PLOT: This graph consists of a grid using Cartesian
coordinates to graph points. The two points are determined by the
two characteristics of the data. After the coordinates are graphed, the
viewer can determine whether or not the two characteristics correlate
(are related). A scatter plot is an excellent way to show whether or not
the two measurements correlate.
Attachments
Intended Learning Outcomes: 6. Represent mathematical ideas in a variety of ways. Instructional Procedures: Invitation to Learn
24 Hour Circle Graphs
 Ask students what they did yesterday. Have students write a
list of what they have done for the past 24 hours. Make sure
they keep things pretty general (for example, if they watched
television, they don't need to provide each show they watched).
Students will make a rough estimate of how long each activity
took and round to the nearest halfhour.
 When students have created a list that equals exactly 24 hours,
they will create a circle graph (or pie chart) representing their
data. You may use the worksheet What Have I Done for the Past
24 Hours?, which has 24 wedges, one for each hour. Students
will color the appropriate wedges to represent each activity.
They will also create a key (or legend) describing what each
color represents.
Instructional Procedures
Candy Bar Graphs
 Tell the students the different types of candy bars you will be
using. Students will gather data about the favorite candy bar
of every student in the class (including themselves). Let the
class determine the most efficient way to collect the data. For
example; ask everyone individually, or conduct a class poll.
Each student will record the data.
 Place students in groups of four. Each student will be in charge
of one of the candy bars. Students in the group will compare
their data (it should be the same). After verifying the ratio (e.g.
5 out of 25) of their candy bar, they will find the equivalent
percentage.
 Inform students the length of one miniature candy bar is equal
to 20%. Therefore (5) miniature candy bars is equal to, or the
same as 100%. They will need to cut (or bite!) until only their
approximate percentage is left.
 Have each student that has charge over a certain candy bar
hold up the length that represents the percentage. Repeat with
each type of candy bar. If the students figured correctly, their
lengths will match.
 On poster paper or graph paper, each group will draw an X and
Y axis and label the X axis with the names of the candy bars,
and the Y axis with the percentages. Also remind them to title
the graph. They will then create a bar graph with the candy bars
actually being the bars. You may have them glue the candy bars
on, or draw an outline of the candy bars.
 Next, have each student create a bar graph for their favorite
miniature candy bar. The candy bar company would want to
use this graph to try to sell the candy bar on an advertisement.
Stress to them that changing the scale can influence the
appearance of the data display (Math Standard V:1d).
Moon Graphs
 Begin by posing the situation: A hospital has contacted the
school and would like to know if a certain old wives’ tale (or
urban legend) is true. They would like our class to determine
if more babies are born on a full moon than any other moon
phase. Let students predict whether or not they think that
statement is valid and why.
 Each student will find out which moon phase they were born
on by visiting the website http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/vphase.html. Ideally,
they will print out their phase and have it to reference during
the activity.
 Move desks or go to an open space (outside, gym, or hallway).
Create human graphs of the data. You may want to start out
with standing in the middle with students lined up around you
according to their moon phase. Students should be able to see
quickly whether or not that old wives’ tale is true for your class.
This can lead into a discussion about validity of small amounts
of data. Would your findings hold true if 1,000 people were
polled? The state of Utah? The United States? The world?
 Bar graphs, stacked bar graphs, double bar graphs, and line
plots are simple graphs to make as a group. Circle graphs would
require string to separate groups. Try to determine percentages
before making that graph. Line graphs could also be created
with string.
Extensions: Curriculum Extensions/Adaptations/Integration
 To extend the candy bar graphs, students could find the exact
percentage by using a ruler.
Assessment Plan:
 To assess the ability to put information into a circle graph,
students will take the data collected from the Candy Bar Graphs
activity and create a circle graph.
 After writing the moon phase data on the board, have students
create a variety of graphs on paper.
Bibliography: Research Basis
Blakemore, C. L. (2003). Movement is essential to learning. JOPERD: The Journal of Physical
Education, Recreation & Dance, 74(9), 2226.
This article strongly asserts that student learning is greatly
enhanced by movement. Studies have shown that students learn and
remember better through physical activity. A variety of movements,
such as crosslateral exercises, are suggested. However, any type of
movement will improve student learning.
Author: Utah LessonPlans
Created Date : Jul 14 2008 14:44 PM
