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Essential Question #1: Why is it so hard to make a map that is accurate in both size and shape?
Essential Question #2: How can I find my way from where I am to where I want to go?
Background For Teachers:
Student Prior Knowledge:
Intended Learning Outcomes:
Explain map concepts including rotation, revolution, axis, seasons, solstice, equinox, and the earth/sun relationships
Collect and interpret geographic data using maps, charts, population pyramids, cartograms, remote sensing and Geographis Information Systems (GIS)
Pass out an orange to each group. Let each work group (small group no more than three students) experiment to cover the orange with a flat piece of grid paper. Have each group display their solution. Ask students to describe what happened to the squares at the top and bottom of the paper.
Have the students wrap the orange with the cylinder of grid paper. Ask if this is a better solution.
Have the students wrap the orange with a cone of grid paper. Ask if this is a better solution.
Display on the overhead the map projections and explain how cartographers have tried to solve this problem.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantage of each map projection. On the beach ball globe with the water-soluble marker draw a straight line horizontally from Philadelphia, Pa to Lisbon, Portugal. Draw the great circle route on the globe beach ball. Discuss why the great circle route is shorter.
List on the Overhead several careers that involve the use of maps. Have the students select two careers they would like to explore. In two days the student will bring a description of those careers. Have the students use the 5 sentence paragraph format to write a paragraph describing why it is necessary to understand map projections and how they are used for those two professions.
Wrap up: Have the students unwrap the orange, peel the orange and share the sweet success of wrapping the world in a map.
Assessment: Given four map projections students will be able to identify each projection by name and give an advantage or disadvantage of each.
Essential Question #2: How can I find my way from where I am to where I want to go.
Key words: Maps, Latitude. Longitude, Map Grid, Compass Rose
Divide the class into small groups ad play the Find Mr. Patterson Game. Students may ask questions that may be answered with yes and no to find my locaation. Winning group will win a Snickers candy bar.
Class Activity 1: 45 Minutes
On a piece of paper have students make a grid with 8 lines vertically and 8 lines horizontally. Using this grid the students will number the lines from top to bottom of the paper with numbers. The students will label the lines from left to right with letters. Use this grid to draw a map of the class room and list the grid address of 5 friends on the classroom map. The student will draw a compass rose showing the cardinal directions north, south, east, and west.
Class Activity 2: 20 Minutes
scale: How long is a nanosecond or l billionth of a second. It is to quick to see on a clock. If we set up the right scale of measurement we may still be able to see a nanosecond visually. Pass out to each student a piece of paper 11 1/4 inches by Ĺ inch. Have the student write nanosecond on the paper and explain that this is how far light will travel in 1 billionth of a second. By using the measurement of inches and comparing it to l second we can see how long a nanosecond is. On maps we do the same thing by comparing inches to miles. If we draw a map full scale where a mile = a mile, the map paper would be as large as the area covered. By reducing the size using a scale we can draw a map that is accurate yet easy to hold and handle.
Have the students find the scale on the map they are using and measure the distance between two points. With a scrap piece of paper have the student put the corner of one edge of the paper on one location. Then along the edge of the paper mark the distance to the second location with a pencil. Then move the edge of the scrap paper down to the scale and calculate the distance in air miles from one location to the other location.
Class Activity 3: 30 minutes
Class Activity 4: 45 Minutes
Latitude and longitude: On a world map have students find the lines of latitude. Notice that the latitude lines begin at the equator and move north and south with the degrees increasing towards the poles.
Find the longitude lines. Notice that 0* longitude is located at Greenwich, England, home of the Royal Geographic society. Longitude lines move around the world from east to west beginning with 0* or the prime meridian. The world map may be divided into quarters of NE, SE, SW, NW to simplify the process.
See Diagram Below
To find latitude and longitude of a location start at the equator and read up or down for the latitude and right for the longitude Beginning at the equator and the prime meridian.
Assessment of knowledge: Find the location of the following lat. - long. Coordinates on a United States map. ( locations rounded off to nearest degree)
Strategies For Diverse Learners:
The students will draw a map of the class room listing the location address of five friends.
Students will locate the distances between their city and five other cities in the state using the map scale.
The students will pass a vocabulary test on this lesson vocabulary. (passing average to be determined by the teacher)
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