Students will construct their own graphs based on data they collect from the book Lemonade For Sale.
Main Curriculum Tie:
Mathematics Grade 3
Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects. 3.
Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step “how many more” and “how many less” problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets.
- Lemonade for Sale, by Stuart J. Murphy; ISBN 0-06-446715-5
Math: Learning to Graph from a Baby Tiger, by Ann
Whitehead Nagda; ISBN 080507161X
- Graph It!, by Lisa Trumbauer; ISBN 0736812822
- Graphs, by Sara
Pistoia; ISBN 1567661203
- Graphing Activities, by Joy Evans; ISBN 1557991243
- Graphs, by Bonnie Bader; ISBN 0448432374
Background For Teachers:
Students should be involved in collecting and describing data.
Students will construct their own graphs based on data they collect from
reading Lemonade For Sale.
Rubrics for graphs help students understand the requirements needed
to complete a graph.
Intended Learning Outcomes:
3. Reason mathematically.
4. Communicate mathematically.
6. Represent mathematical situations.
Invitation to Learn
How many students have ever had a “lemonade stand” or sold Kool-Aid
in their front yards?
Today we are going to read a book about children who want to earn
money. We will keep track of how much lemonade they sell in our
journals. Let’s find out what happens.
Have students glue the Rubric for Graphs onto inside cover
- How much lemonade do you think the children will sell?
- Will they sell
the same amount every day of the week?
- Is there a day that might be better
than another day of the
week? Why do you think?
- Make any other predictions the students may have
- Pass out the Lemonade Graph.
- Have students follow along and create
the graph in student
journals as the teacher reads the Lemonade for Sale
- Use the Rubrics for Graphs to complete the graph.
- Have students write what
they learned about bar graphs in their
- Have students gather information, tally the totals, and create
own graphs following the rubrics glued to the covers of their math
- Extend learning to include other types of graphs:
- Use a graph to
take attendance in the morning.
- Have the students mark the lunch
- Use graphs to enhance other curriculum areas, such as
science, social studies, reading, etc.
- Use different types of objects
to make graphs. Some ideas
might be clothespins, paper clips, magnets, name strips, Postit® notes,
tally marks, pictures of objects, etc.
- Use different mediums to help
maintain interest levels.
Examples might include water in 2 liter bottles (each student
pours in 1/2 cup of water for the bottle of their choice:
favorite place to swim: ocean, lake, swimming pool, etc.).
- Remember to
ask probing questions about the graph after is
has been made:
- Which category had the most, greatest, fewest, or least?
many more or less did one choice have over another?
- Which was the
- Graph the syllables of the spelling words or syllables
- Graph favorite candy or treats such as Skittles,
- Use a variety of questioning when graphing:
- Which do you prefer?
- My favorite ____________ is:
- My choice for ________ is:
- What is your estimate (for counting,
- Other Graphing Questions (which are limitless):
- Which graph do you
like best, bar graph, tally marks, or
- Do you prefer primary or secondary colors?
- What is your favorite
three dimensional shape?
- How do you feel today, happy, frustrated, tired?
- Which id your
favorite, fishing, hiking, or camping?
- What is your favorite sport, football,
soccer, basketball, or
- Do you like antonyms or synonyms?
- Do you like subjects or predicates?
Nouns or Verbs?
Adjectives or Nouns?
- What weather do you like best, rain, snow, or sunny?
- Would you
rather travel in a car, plane, or train?
- What is your favorite subject,
art, music, or science?
- What drink do you like best, hot chocolate, orange
- Do you prefer hamburger, pizza, or fries?
- Which movie do you
like best, Finding Nemo or Monster’s
- What do you prefer, cooking, drawing, or reading?
- What is your
favorite kind of potatoes, baked, mashed, or
- Do you prefer addition, subtraction, or fractions?
- Which holiday
is your favorite, Halloween or Valentine’s
- Which farm animals are the most important, cows, chickens,
pigs, or horses?
- My home is heated by fireplace, gas heat, electricity,
- Where do you prefer to live, city, suburb, rural community,
- Which month do you predict will be the coldest, December,
January, or February?
- What will today’s temperature be at 12:00
- How many hours of sleep do you usually get a night, seven,
eight, nine, or ten?
- Which coin do you like the best, quarter, nickel,
- Is your house number even or odd?
- What season were you born?
- What month were you born?
- What time do you usually get out
of bed? Or go to bed?
(e.g., before 7:00, between 7-8:00, or after 8:00, etc.)
- Which community
worker has the most dangerous job, police
officer, firefighter, or construction worker?
- Which pet would you prefer
to have, gerbil, puppy, kitten, or
- What is your favorite type of fruit, orange, peach, apple,
- If you were an animal, where would you prefer to hibernate?
do you think a plant will live the longest, under the
sink, on the porch, or by a window?
- Do you prefer vertebrates or invertebrates?
- Ideas for picture-graphs:
- What is your favorite national park?
- What is your favorite
- Which animal would you like to be?
- Which continent would you
like to visit?
- Ideas for 2-ring Venn Diagrams:
- I like eating pretzels. I like eating
- I like milk. I like orange juice.
- I like pepperoni pizza. I
like Canadian bacon pizza.
- I like mashed potatoes. I like baked potatoes.
- I am wearing
pants with pockets. I am wearing a shirt with a
- My clothes have a button. My clothes have a zipper.
- I like to
play soccer. I like to play basketball.
- I am the oldest child. I am the
- I like it when it snows. I like to hear thunder.
- My birthday is an
even number. The sum of my birthday
digits is less than 6.
- There are more than four people living in my house.
I have a
- I like to read chapter books. I like to read picture books.
for 3-ring Venn Diagrams:
- I like to eat cake. I like to drink milk. I
like to eat broccoli.
- I am wearing a sweatshirt. I am wearing
blue pants. I am
wearing shoes with laces.
- I am nervous when it thunders. I have seen
a rainbow. I like to
watch the lightning.
- I wear green on St. Patrick’s Day. I wear red
Day. Christmas is my favorite holiday.
- I can name the days of the week
in order. I can name the
months of the year in order. I can tell you how many days
there are in a year.
- I can count to ten in another language. My parents
another language. I speak another language.
- So many different ways to
incorporate graphs! Have fun!
Have students find graphs from
newspapers or magazines at
home. Have family members discuss the information found on the
graph and then bring them to class to share.
- Observe students graphing different kinds of information.
- Have students complete the Lemonade Graph, including key, scale, titles,
- Have students gather data or information about something in the classroom
or home environment, or the class’ favorite candy. Students complete
a tally chart, bar graph, and write about their findings.
Goldsmith, L. T., & Mark, J.
(1999). What is a standards-based mathematics curriculum?
Educational Leadership, 5(57), 40-44. Retrieved July 2, 2004 from Ebscohost database.
This article discusses factors that influence student learning and
promote a deeper and more substantial mathematical understanding, with
an emphasis on conceptual understanding—students learn by doing.
Fogarty, R. (1999). Architects of the Intellect. Educational
Retrieved June 14, 2004, from Ebscohost database.
This article presents information on the proponents of constructivist
theory of learning—John Dewey, Jean Piaget, and Reuven Feuerstein.
Teachers can become architects of intellect as they design exquisite
learning experiences for their students.
Levine, E. (2002). One kid at a time. Educational Leadership, 59(7), 29-32.
April 6, 2004, from Ebscohost database.
This article focuses on the strategic curriculum approach and factors
that provide context for learning—students learn best when they are
Hartshorn, R., & Boren, S. (1990). Experiential learning of mathematics:
manipulatives. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small
Schools, ERIC Digest. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED321967)
Experiential education is based on the idea that active involvement
enhances students’ learning. This is difficult with abstract ideas, but
use the manipulatives can bring experience to students’ mathematical
Created Date :
Dec 02 2005 10:25 AM