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Language Arts - Elementary Curriculum
English Language Arts Grade 4
Course Preface Course Preface
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Core Standards of the Course

College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for K-5 Reading

The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Key Ideas and Details

Reading: Literature Standard 1
Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

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Reading: Literature Standard 2
Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.

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Reading: Literature Standard 3
Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).

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Craft and Structure

Reading: Literature Standard 4
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean).

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Reading: Literature Standard 5
Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text.

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Reading: Literature Standard 6
Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.

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Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

Reading: Literature Standard 7
Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.

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Reading: Literature Standard 8
(Not applicable to literature)


Reading: Literature Standard 9
Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.

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Range of Reading and Complexity of Text

Reading: Literature Standard 10
By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. Continue to develop fluency when reading documents written in cursive.

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Key Ideas and Details

Reading: Informational Text Standard 1
Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

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Reading: Informational Text Standard 2
Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.

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Reading: Informational Text Standard 3
Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.

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Craft and Structure

Reading: Informational Text Standard 4
Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.

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Reading: Informational Text Standard 5
Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.

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Reading: Informational Text Standard 6
Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.

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Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

Reading: Informational Text Standard 7
Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.

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Reading: Informational Text Standard 8
Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.

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Reading: Informational Text Standard 9
Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

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Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

Reading: Informational Text Standard 10
By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. Continue to develop fluency when reading documents written in cursive.

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The reading foundational skills standards are directed toward fostering students’ understanding and working knowledge of concepts of print, the alphabetic principle, and other basic conventions of the English writing system. These foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, they are necessary and important components of an effective, comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines. Instruction should be differentiated: good readers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will. The point is to teach students what they need to learn and not what they already know—to discern when particular children or activities warrant more or less attention.

Phonics and Word Recognition

Reading: Foundational Skills Standard 3
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

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a.
Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

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Fluency

Reading: Foundational Skills Standard 4
Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

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a.
Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.

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b.
Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression.

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c.
Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.


College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for K-5 Writing

The following writing standards offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Each year in their writing, students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. The expected growth in student writing ability is reflected both in the standards themselves and in the collection of annotated student writing samples in Appendix C.

Text Types and Purposes

Writing Standard 1
Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

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a.
Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.

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b.
Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.

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c.
Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).

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d.
Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.

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Writing Standard 2
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

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a.
Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

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b.
Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.

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c.
Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).

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d.
Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

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e.
Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.


Writing Standard 3
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

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a.
Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.

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b.
Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.

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c.
Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events.

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d.
Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.

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e.
Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.


Production and Distribution of Writing

Writing Standard 4
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)

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Writing Standard 5
With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.

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Writing Standard 6
With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting.

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Research to Build and Present Knowledge

Writing Standard 7
Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

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Writing Standard 8
Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.

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Writing Standard 9
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

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a.
Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions].”).

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b.
Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text”).

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Range of Writing

Writing Standard 10
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

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College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for K-5 Speaking and Listening

The following Speaking and Listening standards offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Comprehension and Collaboration

Speaking and Listening Standard 1
Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

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a.
Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.

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b.
Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.

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c.
Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.

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d.
Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.


Speaking and Listening Standard 2
Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

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Speaking and Listening Standard 3
Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points.


Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

Speaking and Listening Standard 4
Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

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Speaking and Listening Standard 5
Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.


Speaking and Listening Standard 6
Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation.

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College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for K-5 Language

The following Language standards offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. Beginning in grade 3, skills and understandings that are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking are marked with an asterisk (*).

Conventions of Standard English

Language Standard 1
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

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a.
Fluently, independently, and legibly write all upper and lower case cursive letters.

b.
Produce grade-appropriate text using legible cursive writing.

c.
Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).

d.
Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.

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e.
Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.

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f.
Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).

g.
Form and use prepositional phrases.

h.
Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.*

i.
Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).*


Language Standard 2
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

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a.
Use correct capitalization.

b.
Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.

c.
Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.

d.
Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.


Knowledge of Language

Language Standard 3
Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

a.
Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.*

b.
Choose punctuation for effect.*

c.
Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).


Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

Language Standard 4
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

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a.
Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

b.
Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).

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c.
Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

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Language Standard 5
Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

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a.
Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context.

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b.
Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.

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c.
Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).

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Language Standard 6
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).

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