This full-year program provides students with an in-depth study
of health care careers
including actual clinical experience in a variety of areas. Instruction includes
intermediate anatomy & physiology, medical terminology, diseases and disorders,
medical ethics and first aid. The class is designed
to prepare students for Advanced Health Science courses and/or for a variety
of health technology programs.
Suggested Prerequisite: Introduction to Health Science and Technology or Biology
Core Standards of the Course
Anatomy and Physiology/Diseases and Disorders
Students will describe the body plan and organization and homeostasis. 7% - 5 Questions
Contrast the science of anatomy with physiology.
Describe the six levels of structural organization of the human body. (chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism)
Describe metabolism and its anabolic and catabolic processes.
Apply directional terms used in human anatomy. (posterior/anterior, medial/lateral, proximal/distal, superficial/deep, superior/inferior)
Apply these commonly used planes to divide the body into portions. (sagittal, midsagittal, transverse [horizontal], frontal [coronal])
Identify the body cavities and locate the following organs within each cavity.
- Vertebral - Spinal Cord
- Cranial - Brain
- Thoracic - Heart & Lungs
- Mediastinal - Heart, Bronchi & Esophagus
- Pericardial – Heart
- Pleural - Lungs
Abdominal -Liver, Spleen, Intestines, Kidneys & Stomach
Pelvic - Intestines, Urinary Bladder & Sex Organs)
Identify the major organ in each abdominal quadrant. (RUQ - Right Upper Quadrant – Liver, RLQ - Right Lower Quadrant - Cecum & Appendix LUQ - Left Upper Quadrant - Spleen, Stomach & Left Kidney, LLQ - Left Lower Quadrant – Left Ovary)
Examine the relationship between homeostasis and stress.
Differentiate between negative and positive mechanisms.
Contrast extracellular and intracellular fluid in terms of location and composition.
Students will explain basic principles of body chemistry. 7% - 5 Questions
Review the following terms and concepts. (states of matter, basic components of the atom [nucleus, electrons, protons, and neutrons], ion, element)
Identify the four major elements in the body. (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen)
Differentiate between a compound and a molecule.
Differentiate between a cation and an anion.
Describe the characteristics of ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds.
Categorize acidic, basic, or neutral solutions based on the pH of a solution.
Distinguish between “neutral” pH and the “average” pH range of the blood. (neutral pH = 7.0, average pH of blood = 7.35 to 7.45)
Describe the properties of water and how it is utilized in the human body. (universal solvent, transport, lubricant, heat capacity, chemical reactions)
Distinguish between inorganic and organic compounds. (Inorganic compounds do not usually contain carbon, are small molecules, and are usually ionic bonds. Organic compounds contain carbon, are large molecules, covalent bonding, and flammable.)
Describe the structures and functions of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
Contrast the characteristics of saturated fats, monounsaturated fats, and polyunsaturated fats.
Describe how the body produces energy during cellular respiration. (ATP < - -> ADP + P + ENERGY conversion)
Students will describe basic concepts of structures and functions of cells, histology, and the integumentary system. 11% - 8 Questions
Identify the four principle parts of a generalized animal cell and their functions. (nucleus, cytosol, organelles & cell membrane)
Describe the structure and function of the cell membrane.
Describe selectively permeable membranes and factors which influence permeability.
Describe each of the following transport processes, and classify them as active or passive. (Passive processes – diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, dialysis, and filtration. Active processes phagocytosis and exocytosis).
Review the osmotic effects that occur when a cell is placed in an isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic solution.
Describe the function of the following structures within the cell nucleus. (nucleolus, gene, chromatin, chromosome)
Identify the major functions and characteristics of the following organelles or cell membrane modifications. (ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes, microfilaments, microtubules, centrioles, centrosomes, flagella, cilia, microvilli, vacuole)
Relate mitosis, meiosis, and cytokinesis to cell division.
Discuss the structure of DNA. (nucleotide, names of complementary bases & codon)
Describe the process of protein synthesis. (transcription, translation)
Identify the general characteristics and functions of each of the principle types of tissues. (Epithelial - strategies for tissue identification [arrangement & cell shape], Connective - adipose, cartilage, dense fibrous, blood & bone, Muscular - skeletal, smooth & cardiac, and Nervous)
Contrast exocrine and endocrine glands.
Differentiate between the basic types of membranes. (mucous, serous, synovial, cutaneous)
Describe the structures and functions of the integumentary system components. (skin, glands, hair, nails)
Describe the major layers of skin. (epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous [hypodermis])
Describe the functions of sudoriferous (sweat) and sebaceous (oil) glands.
Identify the following diseases or disorders of the integumentary system. (acne, athlete’s foot, burns, cancer, decubitus ulcers)
Students will describe the structures and functions of the skeletal system and its components. 9% - 6 Questions
Identify the general functions of the skeletal system.
Identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in bone growth and ossification.
Describe the features of a long bone. (periosteum, diaphysis, epiphysis, metaphysis, medullary cavity, red marrow, yellow marrow, articular cartilage, endosteum)
Contrast the structural differences between compact and spongy bone.
Identify the four classes of bones with characteristics and examples of each. (long, short, flat & irregular)
Describe and locate the following bone markings. (foramen, meatus, sinus, fossa, condyle, tuberosity, trochanter, tubercle & process)
Describe the terms “suture” and “fontanel”.
Contrast the axial and appendicular skeletons.
Locate the following skull bones. (mandible, maxilla, zygomatic, frontal, parietal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid, hyoid, temporal, mastoid process of the temporal bone)
Contrast the general number, location and function of each of the five groups of vertebrae.
Describe the functional classifications of articulations & the associated types within diarthrotic articulations. (synarthrotic, amphiarthrotic and diarthrotic [gliding, hinge, pivot, ellipsodial, saddle & ball and socket)
Explain the structural classifications of articulations. (fibrous, synovial & cartilaginous)
Describe a ligament and its role in a synovial joint.
Discuss the influence of aging, exercise and lifestyle on bone remodeling.
Identify the following diseases or disorders of the skeletal system. (fractures, herniated disc, kyphosis, lordosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, rickets, scoliosis, sprain, strain, spina bifida)
Students will describe the structures and functions of the muscular system and its components. 9% - 6 Questions
Identify the general functions of the muscular system.
Describe the four characteristics of muscle tissue. (elasticity, excitability [irritability]. extensibility, flexibility)
Contrast the general location, microscopic appearance, control, and functions of the three specific types of muscle tissue. (skeletal, smooth, cardiac)
Contrast thick and thin myofilaments.
Describe the sliding-filament theory of muscle contraction.
Describe the role of each of the following structures in muscle contraction. (motor neuron, neuromuscular junction, motor end plate, ACh (acetylcholine) receptors, acetylcholine, motor unit)
Define the terms “origin” and “insertion.”
Describe how levers function. (first class, second class, and third class levers)
Explain the role of prime movers (agonist), antagonists, synergists, and fixators.
Describe the locations and functions of the following skeletal muscles: (biceps brachii, triceps brachii, sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, deltoid, diaphragm, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, gastrocnemius, hamstrings, quadriceps, gluteus maximus)
Locate three commonly chosen sites for intramuscular injections. (deltoid, gluteus medius, vastus lateralis)
Identify the following diseases and disorders of the muscular system. (abnormal contractions, fibromyalgia, muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, shin splints)
Students will describe the structures and functions of the nervous system and special senses. 11% - 8 Questions
Restate the three broad functions of the nervous system: (sensory, integration, motor)
Describe the general organization of the nervous system.
List the functions and structures of neurons and neuroglial cells: (astrocytes, microglia, oligodenrocytes, ependymal cells, Schwann cells, and satellite cells)
Sequence the major events when nerve impulse (action potential) is initiated and transmitted in a neuron.
Contrast white and gray matter of nervous tissue.
Identify the structures responsible for the maintenance and protection of the central nervous system. (meninges [dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater])
Explain the role of each of the components of a reflex arc. (reflex, reflex arc, receptor, sensory neuron, association [interneurons] neuron, motor neuron, effector)
Identify the origins and targets of the phrenic and sciatic nerves.
Identify the four principle parts of the brain. (cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, diencephalon)
Describe the production, location, and function of CSF. (ventricles, subarachnoid space and choroid plexus)
Describe the functions of the three structures found in the brain stem. (midbrain, pons & medulla oblongata)
Describe the structures and functions of the diencephalon. (thalamus & hypothalamus)
Describe the locations and functions of the four lobes of the cerebrum. (frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital)
Explain the major functions of the cerebellum.
Identify the following diseases, disorders, or procedures of the nervous system. (ALS, Alzheimer’s, bacterial meningitis, cephalgia, cerebral palsy, depression, epilepsy, headache, lumbar puncture, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s, polio, Reye’s syndrome)
Describe the principle anatomical structures of the eye. (accessory structures [eyelid, conjunctiva, lacrimal apparatus, and extrinsic muscles of the eyeball] (fibrous tunic [sclera and cornea], vascular tunic [choroid, ciliary body, iris, and lens], nervous tunic [retina])
Describe the principle anatomical structures of the ear. (outer ear [auricle and auditory canal], middle ear [tympanic cavity, tympanic membrane, auditory or Eustachian tube, and auditory ossicles - malleus, incus & stapes], inner ear [bony labyrinth, membranous labyrinth, semicircular canals, vestibule, cochlea, and Organ of Corti])
Identify the following diseases or disorders associated with special senses. (amytropia [presbyopia, myopia, hyperopia], cataracts, conjunctivitis, deafness [conductive and sensorineural], glaucoma, macular degeneration, middle ear infection, strabismus, tinnitus, vertigo)
Students will describe the structures and functions associated with the endocrine system. 6% - 4 Questions
Identify the general functions of the endocrine system.
Describe a “hormone” and how they function in the body.
Describe the locations, secretions, and functions of the major endocrine glands. (Pituitary gland [GH, TSH and ACTH], Thyroid gland [thyroxine], Adrenals [epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol], and Pancreas [glucagon and insulin])
Define the general adaptation syndrome, and compare homeostatic response and stress response.
Identify the following diseases or disorders of the endocrine system. (acromegaly, cretinism, Cushing’s Syndrome, diabetes mellitus, dwarfism, gigantism, goiter, Grave’s disease, hyperthyroidism [exophthalamus], myxedema)
Students will describe the components and functions associated with blood, and the structures and functions of the lymphatic and cardiovascular systems. 11% - 8 Questions
Identify the formed elements of the blood and their functions. (erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes)
Describe erythrocytes including the structure of hemoglobin.
Define “leukocyte” and list the two major groups with their cell types. (granulocytes – neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, and agranulocytes – monocytes, lymphocytes)
Differentiate between plasma and serum.
Describe the process of hemostasis. (vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation)
Contrast a thrombus and an embolus.
Identify the antigens (agglutinogens) found on the erythrocytes and the antibodies (agglutinins) that compose the ABO blood types.
Compare the Rh factor to the ABO blood types.
Identify the following diseases or disorders associated with the blood. (anemias, hemolytic disease of the newborn, hemophilia, leukemia, mononucleosis, polycythemia)
Identify the components of the lymphatic system. (tonsils, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, bone marrow, lymph vessels)
Describe how lymph is moved throughout the body.
Contrast antigens and antibodies.
Describe the general roles of the different types of T cells in cellular immunity. (helper T-cell, cytotoxic T-cell, suppressor T-cell, memory T-cell)
Describe the role of the B cells in humoral immunity. (plasma cell, memory B-cell)
Distinguish between active and passive immunity, and natural vs. artificial acquisition of immunity.
Identify the following diseases or disorders associated with the lymphatic system. (AIDS, allergies, autoimmune (lupus), measles, mumps, rubella, tetanus, tissue rejection)
List the general functions of the cardiovascular system.
Describe the layers of the heart. (epicardium, myocardium, endocardium)
Identify the chambers of the heart.
Locate the great blood vessels of the heart. (superior and inferior vena cava, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, aorta, branches of the aorta)
Identify the valves of the heart. (tricuspid, pulmonary semilunar, bicuspid (mitral), aortic semilunar)
Trace blood flow through the heart.
Identify the components of the conduction system of the heart and trace the pathway.
Sequence the principle events of the cardiac cycle in terms of systole and diastole.
Define stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac output.
Identify factors that determine cardiac output.
Contrast the structures and functions of arteries, capillaries, and veins.
Define pulse and identify the general location of arteries where pulse may be felt.
Describe blood pressure and how to measure it.
Contrast pulmonary and systemic circulation routes.
Explain the general risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease.
Identify the following diseases or disorders of the cardiovascular system. (aneurysm, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, CAD, CVA/Stroke, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, myocardial infarction, shock [types])
Students will describe the structures and functions associated with the respiratory system. 7% - 5 Questions
Identify the general functions of the respiratory system.
Sequence the organs of the respiratory system in the order in which air will pass through them from the exterior.
Identify the three regions of the pharynx. (nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx)
Identify the following anatomical features of the larynx. (epiglottis, glottis, hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, true and false vocal cords)
Identify the coverings of the lungs and the gross anatomical features of the lungs. (apex, base, lobes, horizontal fissures, visceral pleura, parietal pleura, pleural cavity)
Identify the site at which gas exchange occurs in the lungs.
Identify the volumes and capacities of air exchanged during ventilation. (tidal volume, inspiratory reserve, expiratory reserve, residual volume, vital capacity)
Differentiate between ventilation, external respiration, and internal respiration.
Describe the effects of carbon dioxide on ventilation.
Identify the following diseases or disorders of the respiratory system. (asthma [bronchial], bronchiogenic carcinoma, coryza, cystic fibrosis, emphysema, influenza, pleurisy, pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome, rhinitis, SIDS, tuberculosis)
Students will describe the structures and functions associated with the digestive system. 7% - 5 Questions
Identify the general functions of the digestive system.
Contrast chemical and mechanical digestion.
Differentiate between alimentary canal structures and the accessory structures of digestive system.
Identify the location of the salivary glands.
Define the functions of saliva and of salivary amylase in digestion.
Identify the following parts of a typical tooth. (crown, neck, root, gingiva, periodontal ligament, enamel, dentin, pulp and root canal)
Define deglutition, mastication, maceration, segmentation, and haustral churning.
Identify the anatomical features of the esophagus and stomach.
Identify the four basic components of gastric juice. (pepsin, hydrochloric acid, intrinsic factor and mucus)
Identify the location and digestive functioning of the pancreas.
Describe the function of bile and the role of the gallbladder in digestion.
Identify the three sections of the small intestine. (duodenum, jejunum, ileum)
Identify two major mechanical movements of the small intestine. (segmentation, peristalsis)
Identify the structures and sections of the large intestine. (cecum, colon [ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid, taeniae, haustra], rectum, anal canal)
Identify the following diseases or disorders of the digestive system. (anorexia nervosa, appendicitis, bulimia, cirrhosis, colorectal cancer, dental caries, gallstones, hepatitis, hernia, obesity, ulcers)
Students will describe the structures and functions associated with the urinary system. 6% - 4 Questions
State the general functions of the urinary system.
Identify the four major organs of the urinary system. (kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra)
Identify the gross anatomy of the kidney. (renal cortex, renal medulla, renal pyramids, renal pelvis)
Identify the microscopic structure of the nephron: (renal capsule, glomerulus, glomerular [Bowman’s] capsule, afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole), renal tubule (proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, nephron loop, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule & collecting duct) and peritubular capillaries.
Describe the three basic physiological processes and the structures involved in urine formation. (filtration, reabsorption, secretion)
Identify the physical characteristics and normal chemical constituents of urine.
Describe the methods of fluid intake and output, including micturition, voiding, sweat, feces, & exhaled vapor.
Identify the following diseases or disorders associated with the urinary system. (cystitis, diabetes insipidus, glomerulonephritis [Bright’s disease], incontinence, kidney stones, nephrotic syndrome (nephritis), renal failure, renal ptosis, urinary tract infections)
Students will describe the structures and functions associated with the reproductive system. 9% - 6 Questions
Identify the general functions of the reproductive system.
Describe the anatomy of the male genitalia.
Identify the function of the testes.
Identify the functions of testosterone in the male.
Describe the anatomy of the female reproductive structures.
Identify the functions of the ovaries.
Identify the structure and function of the uterine (Fallopian) tubes, including fimbriae and infundibulum.
Describe the structure and function of the uterus (perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium, fundus, cervix)
Define the menstrual cycle including the ovarian and uterine cycles.
Describe the physiological effects of estrogens, progesterone and relaxin.
Contrast the general outcomes of mitosis vs. meiosis.
Contrast the general outcomes of spermatogenesis vs. oogenesis.
Define the following sequence of events that occur during human development. (fertilization, zygote, cleavage, morula, blastocyst, implantation, embryonic period, fetus)
Identify the principal events associated with the three stages of labor. (Stage 1 - dilation and effacement, Stage 2 - delivery and birth, Stage 3 - placental expulsion)
Describe the inheritance of gender.
Identify the following diseases or disorders of the reproductive system. (amenorrhea, cancers [breast, testicular, cervical, ovarian, prostate], cryptorchidism, endometriosis, infertility, impotence, PMS, Sexually Transmitted Infections – STI’s [gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydia, trichimoniasis, genital warts, PID], Toxic Shock Syndrome, yeast infection)
Medical Terminology & Abbreviations
Students will define medical terms. 74% - 52 Questions
Recognize word construction and dissection.
Memorize and apply MAP identified medical terms.
Students will interpret medical abbreviations. 14% - 10 Questions
Interpret MAP identified medical abbreviations.
Interpret MAP identified medical symbols.
Students will define anatomical terms. 6% - 4 Questions
Recognize MAP identified anatomical terms.
Apply MAP identified anatomical terms.
Students will define terms associated with movement. 6% - 4 Questions
Describe MAP identified terms associated with movement.
Apply MAP identified terms associated with movement.
Students will explore careers in health care.
Students attend a minimum of three clinical experiences. (a variety of careers related to therapeutics, diagnostics, information systems and/or environmental services should be explored)
Students give an oral and/or written report for each clinical experience. (utilize the report outline located in the MAP curriculum)
Students will examine medical ethics.
Students selected a topic and defend their position on a current medical ethical dilemma.
Minimum of two class periods specific to medical ethics should be conducted.
Ensure that students are exposed to ethical issues during career exploration experiences.
Students will demonstrate first aid.
Students perform basic first aid.
Student must possess a current CPR certification.
have been produced by and for the teachers of the State of Utah. Copies
of these materials may be freely reproduced for teacher and classroom use.
When distributing these materials, credit should be given to Utah State
Office of Education. These materials may not be published, in whole or part,
or in any other format, without the written permission of the Utah State
Office of Education, 250 East 500 South, PO Box 144200, Salt Lake City,
For more information about this core curriculum, contact the USOE Specialist,
or visit the
CTE/Health Science Education Home Page.
For general questions about Utah's Core Curriculum, contact the USOE Curriculum Director,
MARY SHUMWAY .
UEN Contact Info: 801-581-2999 | 800-866-5852 |