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CTE/Health Science Education Curriculum Medical Anatomy and Physiology
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Core Standards of the Course

Strand 1
BODY PLAN AND ORGANIZATION-Students will explore and describe the body plan, organization, and homeostasis.

Standard 1
Contrast the sciences of anatomy with physiolog

Standard 2
Describe the six levels of structural organization of the human body and give an example of each level.

  1. Chemical
  2. Cellular
  3. Tissue
  4. Organ
  5. System
  6. Organism

Standard 3
Describe the following:

  1. Metabolism
    • Anabolic process
    • Catabolic process

Standard 4
Apply directional terms used in human anatomy.

  1. Posterior/Anterior
  2. Medial/Lateral
  3. Proximal/Distal
  4. Superficial/Deep
  5. Superior/Inferior

Standard 5
Apply commonly used planes to divide the body.

  1. Sagittal
  2. Midsagittal
  3. Transverse (horizontal)
  4. Frontal (coronal)

Standard 6
Identify the body cavities and locate the following organs within each cavity.

  1. Dorsal Cavity
    • Vertebral - Spinal Cord
    • Cranial - Brain
  2. Ventral Cavity
    • Thoracic - Heart & Lungs
    • Mediastinal - heart, bronchi, esophagus, thymus
    • Pericardial – Heart
    • Pleural - Lungs
  3. Abdominopelvic Cavity-liver, spleen, intestines, kidneys, stomach
    • Abdominal-liver, spleen, intestines, kidneys, stomach
    • Pelvic-intestines, urinary bladder, sex organs

Standard 7
Identify the major organ(s) in each abdominal quadrant.

  1. RUQ-right upper quadrant-liver, gallbladder, right kidney
  2. RLQ-right lower quadrant-cecum, appendix, right ovary
  3. LUQ-left upper quadrant-spleen, stomach, left kidney
  4. LLQ-lower left quadrant-left ovary

Standard 8
Examine the relationship between homeostasis and stress.

Standard 9
Differentiate between negative and positive mechanisms. Give examples of each.

  1. Be able to describe the following:
    • Childbirth
    • Breast feeding
    • Blood clotting

Strand 2
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BODY CHEMISTRY-Students will explain basic principles of body chemistry.

Standard 1
Review the following terms and concepts.

  1. States of Matter
  2. Elements
  3. Basic components of the atom
    • Nucleus
    • Electrons
    • Protons
    • Neutrons
  4. Ion
    • Electrolyte

Standard 2
Identify the four major elements in the body.

  1. Carbon
  2. Hydrogen
  3. Oxygen
  4. Nitrogen

Standard 3
Differentiate between:

  1. Compound
  2. Molecule

Standard 4
Differentiate between:

  1. Cation
  2. Anion

Standard 5
Describe the characteristics of bonds. (no longer place any emphasis on which is the strongest type)

  1. Ionic
  2. Covalent
  3. Hydrogen

Standard 6
Define pH.

Standard 7
Categorize the following based on the pH of a solution:

  1. Acidic
  2. Basic
  3. Neutral

Standard 8
Distinguish between "neutral" pH and the "average" pH range of the blood.

  1. Neutral pH=7.0
  2. Average pH of blood=7.35 to 7.45

Standard 9
Describe the properties of water and how it is utilized in the human body.

  1. Universal solvent
  2. Transport
  3. Lubricant
  4. Heat capacity
  5. Chemical reactions

Standard 10
Distinguish between:

  1. Inorganic compounds-do not contain carbon, small molecules, usually form ionic bonds
  2. Organic compounds-usually contain carbon, large molecules, form covalent bonds, flammable

Standard 11
Describe the structures and functions of the following and give an example of each:

  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Proteins
  3. Lipids
  4. Nucleic acids
    • RNA
    • DNA
  5. Amino acids

Standard 12
Describe how the body produces energy during cellular respiration.

  1. ATP < - -> ADP + P + ENERGY

Strand 3
CELLS-Students will describe basic concepts of structures and functions of cells.

Standard 1
Identify the four principle parts of a generalized animal cell and their functions.

  1. Nucleus
  2. Cytosol
  3. Organelles
  4. Cell membrane

Standard 2
Describe the structure and function of the cell membrane.

Standard 3
Describe a selectively permeable membrane and factors which influence permeability.

Standard 4
Contrast intracellular and extracellular fluid in terms of location and composition.

Standard 5
Describe each of the following cellular transport processes and classify them as active or passive.

  1. Passive processes
    • Diffusion
    • Osmosis
    • Facilitated diffusion
    • Dialysis
    • Filtration
  2. Active processes
    • Phagocytosis
    • Exocytosis
    • Active transport

Standard 6
Review the osmotic effects that occur when a cell is placed in the following:

Standard 7
Describe the function of the following structures within the cell.

  1. Nucleolus
  2. DNA
  3. RNA
  4. Gene
  5. Chromatin
  6. Chromosome
  7. Ribosomes
  8. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  9. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  10. Golgi complex
  11. Vesicle (vacuole)
  12. Lysosomes
  13. Peroxisomes
  14. Mitochondria
  15. Cytoskeleton
    • Microfilaments
    • Intermediate filaments
    • Microtubules
  16. Centrosomes
  17. Centrioles
  18. Cellular surface variants
    • Microvilli (absorption)
    • Cilia (transports products along the surface of the cell, "crowd surfers")
    • Flagella (transports the cell)

Standard 8
Compare and contrast:

  1. Mitosis
  2. Meiosis

Strand 4
HISTOLOGY & INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM-Students will describe basic concepts of structures and functions of histology, and the integumentary system.

Standard 1
Identify the general characteristics and functions of each of the four principle types of tissues.

  1. Epithelial-strategies for tissue identification (arrangement & cell shape)
  2. Connective-adipose, cartilage, dense fibrous, blood, bone
  3. Muscular-skeletal, smooth, cardiac
  4. Nervous

Standard 2
Contrast the following:

  1. Exocrine glands
  2. Endocrine glands

Standard 3
Differentiate between the four basic types of membranes.

  1. Mucous
  2. Serous
  3. Synovial
  4. Cutaneous

Standard 4
Describe the structures and functions of the integumentary system components.

  1. Skin
  2. Glands
  3. Hair
  4. Nails

Standard 5
Describe the major layers of skin.

  1. Epidermis
  2. Dermis
  3. Subcutaneous (hypodermis)

Standard 6
Describe the functions of the following:

  1. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands
  2. Sebaceous (oil) glands

Standard 7
Identify the following diseases and disorders of the integumentary system.

  1. Skin cancers
    • Basal cell carcinoma
    • Squamous cell carcinoma
    • Malignant melanoma
  2. Decubitus ulcers
  3. Eczema
  4. Lesion
  5. Burns
    • 1st degree
    • 2nd degree
    • 3rd degree

Strand 5
SKELETAL SYSTEM-Students will describe the structures and functions of the skeletal system and its components.

Standard 1
Identify the general functions of the skeletal system.

Standard 2
Identify the roles of the following in bone growth and ossification:

  1. Osteoblasts
  2. Osteocytes
  3. Osteoclasts

Standard 3
Describe the features of a long bone.

  1. Periosteum
  2. Diaphysis
  3. Epiphysis
  4. Medullary cavity
  5. Red marrow
  6. Yellow marrow
  7. Articular cartilage
  8. Endosteum
  9. Compact bone
  10. Spongy bone

Standard 4
Identify the four shapes of bones with characteristics and examples of each.

  1. Long
  2. Short
  3. Flat
  4. Irregular

Standard 5
Describe and locate the following bone markings.

  1. Foramen
  2. Meatus
  3. Sinus
  4. Fossa
  5. Condyle
  6. Tuberosity
  7. Trochanter
  8. Tubercle
  9. Process

Standard 6
Describe and differentiate between the following terms:

  1. Suture
  2. Fontanel

Standard 7
Contrast the axial and appendicular skeletons.

Standard 8
Locate the following bones.

  1. Mandible
  2. Maxilla
  3. Zygomatic
  4. Frontal
  5. Parietal
  6. Occipital
  7. Sphenoid
  8. Ethmoid
  9. Hyoid
  10. Temporal
  11. Clavicle
  12. Scapula
  13. Sternum
  14. Ribs
  15. Pubic bone
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis
  16. Femur
  17. Patella
  18. Tibia
  19. Fibula
  20. Tarsals
  21. Metatarsals
  22. Phalanges
  23. Humerus
  24. Ulna
  25. Radius
  26. Carpals
  27. Metacarpals
  28. Vertebrae

Standard 9
Contrast the average number, location, and function of each of the five groups of vertebrae.

  1. Cervical
  2. Thoracic
  3. Lumbar
  4. Sacral
  5. Coccygeal

Standard 10
Explain the structural and functional classifications of articulations.

  1. Fibrous
  2. Synovial
  3. Cartilaginous
  4. Amphiarthrotic
  5. Diarthrotic
  6. Synarthrotic

Standard 11
Differentiate between ligaments and tendons.

Standard 12
Identify the following diseases and disorders of the skeletal system.

  1. Herniated disk
  2. Osteoarthritis
  3. Osteoporosis
  4. Scoliosis
  5. Kyphosis
  6. Lordosis
  7. Spina bifida
  8. RA (Rheumatoid arthritis)

Strand 6
MUSCULAR SYSTEM-Students will describe the structures and functions of the muscular system and its components.

Standard 1
Identify the general functions of the muscular system.

Standard 2
Describe the four characteristics of muscle tissue.

  1. Elasticity
  2. Excitability (irritability)
  3. Extensibility
  4. Flexibility

Standard 3
Contrast the general location, microscopic appearance, control, and functions of the three specific types of muscle tissue.

  1. Skeletal
  2. Smooth
  3. Cardiac

Standard 4
Contrast thick and thin myofilaments.

  1. Actin
  2. Myosin

Standard 5
Describe the sliding-filament theory of muscle contraction.

Standard 6
Describe what occurs at the neuromuscular junction.

Standard 7
Define the following terms:

  1. Origin
  2. Insertion

Standard 8
Explain the role of the following:

  1. Prime movers (agonists)
  2. Antagonists
  3. Synergist
  4. Fixators

Standard 9
Describe the locations and functions of the following skeletal muscles:

  1. Biceps brachii
  2. Triceps brachii
  3. Brachialis
  4. Flexors
  5. Extensors
  6. Pronator
  7. Supinator
  8. Rotator cuff
    • Supraspinatus
    • Infraspinatus
    • Teres minor
    • Subscapularis
  9. Sternocleidomastoid
  10. Trapezius
  11. Deltoid
  12. Diaphragm
  13. Rectus abdominis
  14. Pectoralis major
  15. Latissimus dorsi
  16. External oblique
  17. Gastrocnemius
  18. Tibialis anterior
  19. Soleus
  20. Hamstrings
    • Semimembranosus
    • Semitendinosus
    • Biceps femoris
  21. Quadriceps
    • Rectus femoris
    • Vastus lateralis
    • Vastus medialis
    • Vastus intermedius
  22. Gluteus maximus
  23. Gluteus medius
  24. Sartorius
  25. Gracilis
  26. Masseter

Standard 10
Identify the following diseases and disorders of the muscular system.

  1. Fibromyalgia
  2. Muscular dystrophy
  3. Medial tibial stress syndrome
  4. Compare and contrast the following, describe the three degrees of injury:
    • Sprain
    • Strain

Strand 7
NERVOUS SYSTEM/SPECIAL SENSES-Students will describe the structures and functions of the nervous system and special senses.

Standard 1
Restate the three broad functions of the nervous system.

  1. Sensory
  2. Integration
  3. Motor

Standard 2
Describe the general organization of the nervous system.

  1. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • Spinal nerves
      • 31 pairs
    • Cranial nerves
      • I-XII
    • Subdivisions
      • Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
        • Sympathetic
        • Parasympathetic
      • Somatic Nervous System

Standard 3
List the functions and structures of neurons and neuroglial cells.

  1. Neuron
  2. Astrocytes
  3. Microglia
  4. Oligodendrocytes
  5. Ependymal cells
  6. Schwann cells
  7. Satellite cells

Standard 4
Contrast white and gray matter of nervous tissue.

Standard 5
Describe the location and function of CSF.

  1. Ventricles
    • Choroid Plexus
  2. Subarachnoid space

Standard 6
Identify the structures responsible for the maintenance and protection of the central nervous system.

  1. Meninges
    • Dura mater
    • Arachnoid mater
    • Pia mater

Standard 7
Identify the four principle parts of the brain.

  1. Cerebrum
  2. Cerebellum
  3. Brain stem
  4. Diencephalon

Standard 8
Describe the functions of the three structures of the brain stem.

  1. Medulla oblongata
  2. Pons
  3. Midbrain

Standard 9
Describe the structures and functions of the diencephalon.

  1. Thalamus
  2. Hypothalamus

Standard 10
Describe the locations and functions of the four lobes of the cerebrum.

  1. Frontal
  2. Parietal
  3. Temporal
  4. Occipital

Standard 11
Explain the major functions of the cerebellum.

Standard 12
Sequence the major events when the nerve impulse (action potential) is initiated and transmitted through a neuron.

  1. All or None Principle

Standard 13
Explain the role of each of the components of a reflex arc.

  1. Reflex
  2. Reflex arc
  3. Receptor
  4. Sensory neuron
  5. Association (interneuron) neuron
  6. Motor neuron
  7. Effector

Standard 14
Identify the following diseases and disorders of the nervous system.

  1. ALS
  2. Alzheimerís
  3. Bacterial meningitis
  4. Cerebral palsy
  5. Epilepsy
  6. Multiple sclerosis
  7. Guillain-Barre syndrome
  8. Parkinsonís
  9. Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA)-stroke

Standard 15
Describe the principle anatomical structures of the eye.

  1. Accessory structures
    • Eyelid
    • Conjunctiva
    • Lacrimal apparatus
    • Extrinsic muscles
  2. Layers of the eyeball
    • Fibrous tunic
      • Sclera
      • Cornea
    • Vascular tunic
      • Choroid
      • Ciliary body
      • Iris
      • Lens
      • Pupil
    • Nervous tunic
      • Retina

Standard 16
Describe the principle anatomical structures of the ear.

  1. Outer ear
    • Auricle
    • Auditory canal
  2. Middle ear
    • Tympanic cavity
    • Tympanic membrane
    • Auditory (Eustachian) tube
    • Auditory ossicles
      • Malleus
      • Incus
      • Stapes
    • Inner ear
      • Bony labyrinth
      • Membranous labyrinth
      • Semicircular canals
      • Vestibule
      • Cochlea
      • Organ of Corti

Standard 17
Identify the following diseases and disorders associated with special senses.

  1. Ametropia-abnormal refracted light
    • Myopia
    • Hyperopia
    • Presbyopia
  2. Cataracts
  3. Conjunctivitis
  4. Strabismus
  5. Glaucoma
  6. Macular degeneration
  7. Vertigo
  8. Tinnitus
  9. Middle ear infection (Otitis Media)
  10. Deafness
    • Conductive
    • Sensorineural

Strand 8
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM-Students will describe the structures and functions associated with the endocrine system.

Standard 1
Identify the general functions of the endocrine system.

Standard 2
Describe a "hormone" and how it functions in the body.

Standard 3
Describe the locations, secretions, and functions of the major endocrine glands. Know the hormones and their target.

  1. Hypothalamus
    • Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH)-targets anterior pituitary
    • Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH)-targets anterior pituitary
    • Corticotropic Releasing Hormone (CRH)-target anterior pituitary
    • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
      • Produced in hypothalamus
      • Stored in posterior pituitary
    • Oxytocin Hormone (Oxt)
      • Produced in hypothalamus
      • Stored in posterior pituitary
  2. Pituitary Gland-found in the hypophyseal fossa "Sella Turcica"
    • Anterior Pituitary (adenohypophysis)
      • Human Growth Hormone (HGH) 
        • Targets cells stimulating growth
      • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
        • Targets thyroid gland
      • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
        • Targets adrenal cortex
    • Posterior Pituitary (neurohypophysis)
      • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
        • Neural stimulus releases ADH to target kidneys for water retention
      • Oxytocin Hormone (Oxt)
        • Neural stimulus releases Oxt to target uterus for child birthing
        • Neural stimulus releases Oxt to target breast tissue for milk letdown
  3. Thyroid Gland-found inferior to the Larynx
    • Thyroxine (T4)
      • Targets cells increasing metabolism
    • Triiodothyronine (T3)
      • Targets cells increasing metabolism
  4. Adrenal Gland-found atop the kidneys
    • o Adrenal Cortex
      • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
        • Stimulates the release of cortisol
      • Cortisol
        • Anti-inflammatory by suppressing white blood cells
    • Adrenal Medulla-sympathetic stimulus for sustained "Fight or Flight"
      • Epinephrine-adrenaline increasing cell metabolism
      • Norepinephrine-noradrenaline increasing cell metabolism
  5. Pancreas Gland-Exocrine/Endocrine gland in LUQ posterior to the stomach
    • Insulin
      • Released from Beta cells to target cells to decrease blood sugar
    • Glucagon
      • Released from Alpha cells to break down glycogen to increase blood sugar

Standard 4
Identify the following diseases and disorders of the endocrine system.

  1. Dwarfism
  2. Gigantism
  3. Acromegaly
  4. Hypothyroidism
    • Myxedema
    • Cretinism-congenital hypothyroidism
  5. Hyperthyroidism (Gravesí disease)
    • Goiter
    • Exophthalamos
  6. Diabetes mellitus
    • Type I
    • Type II
  7. Diabetes insipidus
  8. Cushing's syndrome

Strand 9
BLOOD-Students will describe the components and functions associated with blood.

Standard 1
Identify the components of blood and their functions.

  1. Erythrocytes
  2. Leukocytes
  3. Thrombocytes
  4. Plasma

Standard 2
Describe erythrocytes, including the structure of hemoglobin.

Standard 3
Define leukocyte and list the two major groups with their cell types and their function.

  1. Granulocytes
    • Neutrophils
    • Basophils
    • Eosinophils
  2. Agranulocytes
    • Monocytes
    • Lymphocytes

Standard 4
Describe the process of hemostasis.

  1. Vascular spasm
  2. Platelet plug formation
  3. Coagulation

Standard 5
Contrast a thrombus and an embolus.

Standard 6
Identify the antigens found on the erythrocytes and the antibodies that determine the ABO blood types and the Rh factor.

Standard 7
Identify the following diseases and disorders associated with the blood.

  1. Anemias
    • Nutritional
    • Pernicious
    • Hemorrhagic
    • Hemolytic
    • Sickle cell
    • Aplastic
    • Hemolytic disease of the newborn
    • Hemophilia
    • Leukemia
    • Mononucleosis
    • Polycythemia

Strand 10
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM-Students will describe the structures and functions of the lymphatic system.

Standard 1
Identify the components of the lymphatic system.

  1. Tonsils
  2. Spleen
  3. Thymus
  4. Lymph nodes
  5. Bone marrow
  6. Lymph vessels

Standard 2
Describe how lymph is moved through the body.

Standard 3
Contrast antigens and antibodies.

Standard 4
Describe the general roles of T-cells and B-cells in the immune response.

Standard 5
Distinguish between active and passive immunity and natural vs. artificial acquisition of immunity.

Standard 6
Identify the following diseases and disorders associated with the lymphatic system.

  1. AIDS
  2. Measles
  3. Mumps
  4. Rubella
  5. Tetanus

Strand 11
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM-Students will describe the structures and functions of the cardiovascular system.

Standard 1
List the general functions of the cardiovascular system.

Standard 2
Describe the layers of the heart.

  1. Epicardium
  2. Myocardium
  3. Endocardium

Standard 3
Identify the chambers of the heart.

  1. Atria
  2. Ventricles

Standard 4
Locate the great blood vessels of the heart.

  1. Superior vena cava
  2. Inferior vena cava
  3. Pulmonary trunk
  4. Pulmonary arteries
  5. Pulmonary veins
  6. Aorta
  7. Branches of the aorta

Standard 5
Identify the valves of the heart.

  1. Tricuspid
  2. Pulmonary semilunar
  3. Bicuspid (mitral)
  4. Aortic semilunar

Standard 6
Trace blood flow through the heart.

Standard 7
Identify the components of the conduction system of the heart and trace the pathway.

  1. SA node
  2. AV node
  3. AV bundle
  4. Bundle branches
  5. Purkinje fibers

Standard 8
Sequence the principle events of the cardiac cycle in terms of systole and diastole.

Standard 9
Define cardiac output and identify factors that influence it.

  1. Heart rate
  2. Stroke volume

Standard 10
Contrast the structures and functions of arteries, capillaries, and veins.

Standard 11
Define pulse and identify the general location of arteries where pulse may be felt.

Standard 12
Describe blood pressure and how to measure it.

Standard 13
Contrast pulmonary and systemic circulation.

Standard 14
Identify the following diseases and disorders of the cardiovascular system.

  1. Aneurysm
  2. Arteriosclerosis
  3. Atherosclerosis
  4. Cerebrovascular accident/stroke
  5. Coronary artery disease
  6. Hypertension
  7. Murmur
  8. Myocardial infarction

Strand 12
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM-Students will describe the structures and functions associated with the respiratory system.

Standard 1
Identify the general functions of the respiratory system.

Standard 2
Sequence the organs of the respiratory system in the order in which air will pass through them from the exterior.

Standard 3
Identify the three regions of the pharynx.

  1. Nasopharynx
  2. Oropharynx
  3. Laryngopharynx

Standard 4
Identify the following anatomical features of the larynx.

  1. Epiglottis
  2. Glottis
  3. Hyoid bone
  4. Thyroid cartilage
  5. Cricoid cartilage
  6. True vocal cords
  7. False vocal cords

Standard 5
Identify the coverings of the lungs and the gross anatomical features of the lungs.

  1. Apex
  2. Base
  3. Lobes
  4. Visceral pleura
  5. Parietal pleura
  6. Pleural cavity

Standard 6
Identify the site at which gas exchange occurs in the lungs (alveoli).

Standard 7
Identify the volumes and capacities of air exchanged during ventilation.

  1. Vital capacity
  2. Tidal volume

Standard 8
Differentiate between the following.

  1. Ventilation
  2. External respiration
  3. Internal respiration

Standard 9
Describe the effects of carbon dioxide on ventilation.

Standard 10
Identify the following diseases or disorders of the respiratory system.

  1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder
    • Emphysema
  2. Influenza
  3. Lung cancer
  4. Pneumonia
  5. SIDS
  6. Tuberculosis
  7. Cystic Fibrosis
  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
  9. Respiratory distress

Strand 13
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM-Students will describe the structures and functions associated with the digestive system.

Standard 1
Identify the general functions of the digestive system.

Standard 2
Contrast chemical and mechanical digestion.

Standard 3
Differentiate between the following.

  1. Alimentary canal structures
    • Mouth
    • Pharynx
    • Stomach
    • Small intestines
    • Large intestines
    • Rectum
    • Anus
  2. Accessory structures
    • Pancreas
    • Gallbladder
    • Liver

Standard 4
Describe the functions of saliva and salivary amylase in digestion.

Standard 5
Identify the following parts of a typical tooth.

  1. Crown
  2. Neck
  3. Root
  4. Gingiva
  5. Periodontal ligament
  6. Enamel
  7. Dentin
  8. Pulp
  9. Root canal

Standard 6
Define the following.

  1. Deglutition
  2. Mastication
  3. Maceration
  4. Segmentation
  5. Peristalsis
  6. Haustral churning

Standard 7
Identify the anatomical features of the stomach.

  1. Fundus
  2. Body
  3. Pylorus
  4. Rugae
  5. Cardiac sphincter
  6. Pyloric sphincter

Standard 8
Identify the basic components and functions of gastric juice.

  1. Chief cells
    • Pepsinogen
  2. Parietal cells
    • Hydrochloric acid
  3. Goblet cells
    • Mucus

Standard 9
Identify the location and digestive functions of the pancreas.

  1. Pancreatic Islets
  2. Acini Cells

Standard 10
Describe the function of bile (emulsification).

Standard 11
Identify the three sections of the small intestine and describe the functions.

  1. Duodenum
  2. Jejunum
  3. Ileum

Standard 12
Identify the structures and sections of the large intestine and describe the functions.

  1. Cecum
  2. Colon
    • Ascending
    • Transverse
    • Descending
    • Sigmoid
  3. Rectum
  4. Anal canal

Standard 13
Identify the following diseases and disorders of the digestive system.

  1. Appendicitis
  2. Cirrhosis
  3. Colorectal cancer
  4. Gallstones
  5. Hepatitis
  6. Obesity
  7. Ulcers
  8. Celiac disease
  9. Crohnís disease
  10. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Strand 14
URINARY SYSTEM-Students will describe the structures and functions associated with the urinary system.

Standard 1
Identify the general functions of the urinary system.

Standard 2
Identify the four major organs of the urinary system.

  1. Kidneys
  2. Ureters
  3. Bladder
  4. Urethra

Standard 3
Identify the gross anatomy of the kidney

  1. Renal cortex
  2. Renal medulla
  3. Renal pyramids
  4. Renal pelvis
  5. Renal capsule
  6. Calyces

Standard 4
Identify the microscopic structures of the nephron.

  1. Renal corpuscle
  2. Glomerulus
  3. Glomerular (Bowmanís) capsule
  4. Afferent arteriole
  5. Efferent arteriole
  6. Renal tubule
    • Proximal convoluted tubule
    • Descending limb
    • Nephron loop
    • Ascending limb
    • Distal convoluted tubule
    • Collecting duct
  7. Peritubular capillaries

Standard 5
Describe the three basic physiological processes and the structures involved in urine formation.

  1. Filtration
  2. Reabsorption
  3. Secretion

Standard 6
Identify abnormal constituents of urine and possible causes of each.

  1. Glucose
  2. Ketones
  3. Erythrocytes
  4. Leukocytes
  5. Bilirubin
  6. Microbes
  7. Albumin

Standard 7
Describe the methods of fluid intake and output.

  1. Intake
    • Oral
      • Liquid
      • Solid
    • Intravenous
    • Metabolic
  2. Output
    • Micturition
    • Voiding
    • Sweat
    • Feces
    • Exhaled vapor

Standard 8
Identify the following diseases and disorders associated with the urinary system.

  1. Cystitis
  2. Glomerulonephritis
  3. Incontinence
  4. Kidney stones
  5. Polyuria
  6. Renal failure
  7. Urinary tract infections (UTI)

Strand 15
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM-Students will describe the structures and functions associated with the reproductive system.

Standard 1
Identify the general functions of the reproductive system.

Standard 2
Describe the anatomy of the male genitalia.

  1. External
    • Penis
    • Scrotum
    • Testes
  2. Internal
    • Epididymis
    • Ductus deferens
    • Ejaculatory duct
    • Urethra
  3. Accessory
    • Seminal vesicles
    • Prostate
    • Bulbourethral gland

Standard 3
Identify the function of the testes.

Standard 4
Identify the functions of testosterone in the male.

Standard 5
Describe the anatomy of the female reproductive structures.

  1. External
    • Vulva
    • Labia majora
    • Clitoris
    • Labia minora
    • Mons pubis
    • Vestibule
  2. Internal
    • Ovaries
    • Uterus
    • Uterine tubes
    • Vagina
  3. Accessory
    • Mammary glands
    • Perineum

Standard 6
Identify the functions of the ovaries.

Standard 7
Identify the structures and functions of the uterine tubes, including fimbriae and infundibulum.

Standard 8
Describe the structures and function of the uterus.

  1. Perimetrium
  2. Myometrium
  3. Endometrium
    • Stratum functionalis
    • Stratum basalis
  4. Fundus
  5. Cervix

Standard 9
Define the menstrual cycle including the ovarian and uterine cycles and changes that occur during menopause.

Standard 10
Describe the physiological effects of estrogens, progesterone and relaxin.

Standard 11
Contrast the general outcomes of spermatogenesis vs. oogenesis

Standard 12
Define the following sequence of events that occur during human development.

  1. Fertilization
  2. Zygote
  3. Implantation
  4. Embryo
  5. Fetus

Standard 13
Identify the principle events associated with the three stages of labor.

  1. Stage 1-dilation and effacement
  2. Stage 2-delivery and birth
  3. Stage 3-placental expulsion

Standard 14
Identify the following diseases and disorders of the reproductive system.

  1. Endometriosis
  2. Impotence
  3. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
  4. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI)
    • Gonorrhea
    • Syphilis
    • Genital herpes
    • Chlamydia
    • Trichimoniasis
    • Genital warts
    • Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)


UEN logo http://www.uen.org - in partnership with Utah State Board of Education (USBE) and Utah System of Higher Education (USHE).  Send questions or comments to USBE Specialist - Rachel Decker and see the CTE/Health Science Education website. For general questions about Utah's Core Standards contact the Director - THALEA LONGHURST .  
Email:  thalea.longhurst@schools.utah.gov

These materials have been produced by and for the teachers of the State of Utah. Copies of these materials may be freely reproduced for teacher and classroom use. When distributing these materials, credit should be given to Utah State Board of Education. These materials may not be published, in whole or part, or in any other format, without the written permission of the Utah State Board of Education, 250 East 500 South, PO Box 144200, Salt Lake City, Utah 84114-4200.