Science - 3rd Grade
Standard 5 Objective 1
Group activities help students understand the role of the sun as the source of heat and light for living things on Earth. They will also understand the role of friction in creating heat.
Race Some Beads
Cold, Colder, Coldest, by Michael Dahl (Animal Extremes Series); Children Library Resources Item #GK923763
Experiments with Heat, by Salvatore Tocci (A True Books Series); ISBN 0-516-22510-3
The Magic School Bus in the Arctic, by Joanna Cole; ISBN 0-590-18724-4
Temperature, by Brenda Walpole (Measure Up With Science); ISBN 0-8368-1363-4
Temperature, by Navin Sullivan; ISBN 918-0-7614-2322-5
Polar Bears, by Ann O. Squire (A True Books Series); ISBN 0-516-25473-1
Polar Bears, by Julia Barnes (100 Facts About Predators); ISBN 0-8368-4038-0
Polar Bears, by Timothy Levi Biel (Zoobooks); ISBN 0-88682-414-1
Heat, Bill Nye the Science Guy Series Three, (Disney Educational Productions) Library Video Company VHS DN2226, DVD DW0577
Heat, The Way Things Work Video Series, by David Magaulay (Schlessinger Media) Library Video Company VHS DK7849, DVD DV6014
Animal Adaptations, (Discovery Channel School Series) Teacher's Media Company VHS TBRR-354074
Something that is hot, like a hot drink, feels very different from something cold, like ice cream. Both sensations are caused by the same thing: heat. The difference is that the cold object contains less heat than the hot ones. Our bodies make heat from our food. We also get heat from the Sun and from burning fuels. The heat of an object is measured using temperature. A thermometer measures temperature.
Many students have the misconception that a coat or glove can produce heat. Heat is the flow of energy from hotter to cooler objects. Coats and gloves help stop the flow of energy and trap, or hold the heat. Insulators are materials that block the flow of heat, so warm things tend to stay warm while cold items stay cool longer. Good insulators are plastic, feathers, air, and materials that hold air. Heat conductors are materials that allow the flow of heat energy to move easily from one source to another. Good conductors are solid materials such as metals.
The body of a polar bear is made for living in its harsh, cold environment. Among land animals, the polar bear is the largest predator in the world, with an average male measuring about 8 feet long and weighing between 800 to 1300 pounds. Large bodies usually hold heat much better than smaller ones. But the bear's large body also has extra layers of protection against the cold. Although a polar bear looks white, its skin is black, and its hair has no color at all. Its thick coat is really two layers of fur: a waterproof undercoat of short hair and a layer of guard hair 6 inches in length. Each hair is really a hollow tube that you can see right through. Some of the sunlight bounces off the hair, making the bear appear white; but most of the sun's rays pass through the hollow hairs and are trapped by the bear's black skin. Underneath this fur coat, the polar bear has a layer of fat that can be 4 inches thick. The polar bear can survive even when the outside temperature drops to -70 degrees F because this fat and layers of fur act as insulators, trapping its body heat.
1. Use science process and thinking skills.
3. Understand science concepts and principles.
4. Communicate effectively using science language and reasoning.
Invitation to Learn
Pass the Penny
Heat is the flow of energy from hotter to cooler objects. Temperature is a measure of how much heat energy an object has.
Prior to this activity, mark a penny with a small, flat dot of fingernail polish. Provide each group of 4 or 5 students with a small cloth bag containing 5 pennies. Have a member of the group remove the marked penny and hold it for approximately 10 seconds in their closed fist. Quickly pass the penny on to the next group member, allowing them to hold the penny for about 10 seconds. Continue this process until the penny has gone around the group once or twice. (You may notice that the penny has become warm). Replace this penny quickly with the others in the bag and shake them up. Ask a volunteer to reach into the bag and pull out the marked penny. How could they recognize which penny to choose? Why did this penny feel different than the others? What was the penny's heat source? What causes the temperature change of the penny? You might also try this activity by allowing the marked penny to lie in direct sunlight (or under a heat lamp) for 30 seconds, and repeat the activity. Were the results similar?
Race Some Beads
This activity will demonstrate how well some materials conduct heat.
What happened to the temperature of the water in the open jar? Where did the heat go? What has insulated the water in the closed inner jar?
Heat does not pass easily through the insulated jar, the cork, and the air in the large jar. Water in the open jar loses heat more quickly. A Thermos flask keeps drinks hot or cold. It is made using two containers with a tight lid, like your heat store. The inner container has shiny sides and a double wall with a "vacuum" or empty space inside. It is so difficult for heat to leave or enter the flask that its contents stay hot, or remain cold, for a long time.
Curriculum Extensions/Adaptations/ Integration
4 correct, complete, detailed
3 mostly correct & complete, fairly detailed
2 partially correct & complete, lacks some detail
1 incorrect, incomplete, missing important detail
0 no attempt
Tomlinson, C.A. (1999) The Differentiated Classroom, Responding to the Needs of All Learners pp7-8.
Differentiated classrooms feel right to students who learn in different ways and at different rates and who bring to school different talents and interests. More significantly, such classrooms work better for a full range of students than do one-size-fits-all settings. Teachers in differentiated classrooms are more in touch with their students and approach teaching more as an art than as a mechanical exercise.
Kesidou, S. & Roseman, J. E., (2002), How Well Do Middle School Science Programs Measure Up? Findings from Project 2061's Curriculum Review.
Programs rarely provided students with a sense of purpose for the units of study. This program took account of student's beliefs that interfere with learning. It modeled the use of scientific knowledge so that students could apply what they learned in everyday situations. Floden, R. A., Buchmann, M., and J. Schwille, J., (1987). "Breaking with Everyday Experiences" Teachers College Record 88, p. 263. Representations of the subject need to take into account what learners are already likely to know and understand about the subject matter as well as the experiences and knowledge they bring with them from their environment.