This set of lessons extends over several days. Students watch a Prezi and take notes about the classical appeals (ethos, pathos, and logos). Students then read and annotate (focusing on the classical appeals) Winston Churchill's "Be Ye Men of Valour" and Franklin Delano Roosevelt's "Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation." Students work in groups to complete a graphic organizer which helps them analyze the classical appeals in the speeches. Finally, students write an analysis of ethos, pathos, and logos in one of the speeches.
*You may want to use my Structure and Detail in "A Long Thin Line" - English 11 lesson as a follow-up lesson.
Background for Teachers
- Students need to know how to integrate or embed quotations into their own sentences. I have attached the website I use to teach how to integrate or embed quotations in the materials section of this lesson.
- Students need to know how to cite quotations (I use and teach MLA).
- Introduce the three classical appeals (ethos, pathos, and logos). I have attached a link to the Prezi that I use to introduce the appeals. It is located in the materials section of this lesson.
- Students need a basic understanding of World War II; have a class discussion about WWII to surface student background knowledge.
Intended Learning Outcomes
Students will read, annotate and analyze Winston Churchill's "Be Ye Men of Valour" and Franklin Delano Roosevelt's "Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation." Students will write an analysis in which they determine the speaker's message in a speech in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how ethos, pathos, and logos contribute to the power of the speech.
Background - Classical Appeals
PART ONE - Churchill
- Show the Prezi on the Classical Appeals. (A link is available in the materials section of this lesson.)
- Students take notes while watching the Prezi.
- To reinforce the classical appeals, find commercials online. I show different commercials every year; I select the commercials based on my classes. I find at least one commercial for ethos, one for pathos and one for logos. Remember that you will probably not find one commercial that exclusively showcases just one of the appeals. Also, one element may be correctly labeled as more than one appeal. Show the commercial and have students look for and record evidence of the classical appeals. As a class, discuss each commercial.
PART TWO - Roosevelt
- Pass out student copies of "Be Ye Men of Valour."
- Read the first few paragraphs of the speech with the class. Model and think aloud as you read; record your thinking on the handout (project your copy of the text and your annotations). Point out and mark any evidence of ethos, pathos, and logos. Students must read along with you, annotating their own copies of the speech.
- Instruct students to read the speech on their own, annotating to show their thinking.
- Students should focus on the classical appeals (ethos, pathos, and logos).
PART THREE - Classical Appeals
- Pass out student copies of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's "Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation."
- Students read the speech on their own, annotating to show their thinking, and focusing on the classical appeals.
PART FOUR - Analysis of Classical Appeals in a War Speech
- Pass out the Classical Appeals and War Speeches graphic organizer.
- Explain the handout and, using your own annotated copy of Churchill's speech, model how to complete it. As a class, brainstorm possible claims for Churchill's speech. Students will probably need extra help with the "Explanation of how the evidence 'works' as ethos, pathos or logos" section and the "SO WHAT? How does this help the speaker convey his message?" section. You may want to model these sections FOR the class and then WITH the class.
- Put the students into groups of four.
- Working as a group, referring to Winston Churchill's "Be Ye Men of Valour" speech and their annotations, students should complete the graphic organizer.
- Students repeat the process for Franklin Delano Roosevelt's "Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation."
- When all students have completed the graphic organizer, pull the class back together.
- Each group must prepare to share their best evidence with the whole class.
- Starting with Churchill's "Be Ye Men of Valour," groups share out their best example of ethos, pathos and logos, their explanation of how that example "works" as ethos, pathos, and logos and their explanation of SO WHAT. Encourage students to add information to their own handouts.
- Repeat the discussion with Roosevelt's "Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation."
- Working independently, students write an analysis of ethos, pathos, and logos in one of the speeches (students may choose which speech to analyze).
- Pass out the handout and discuss the requirements.
- Assign the essay as homework or take the class to a lab and give them time to write a rough draft.
- Peer Review - Put students into pairs and have them read their partner's essays. Students should use the rubrics on the handout which explains the essay; partners should work closely together, reading the essays, discussing the essays and completing the rubrics.
- Assign the essay as homework or take the class to a computer lab and give students time to proofread, edit, revise and write a final draft.
Information on how to assess the assignment and rubrics are in the instructional procedures and the materials section of this lesson.