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CTE/Agricultural Education Curriculum Nursery Operation
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Core Standards of the Course

Use the following Standard 1 and Standard 2 if this course is taught at the entry level.

Standard 1
Students will explain the role of FFA in agricultural education.

Objective 1
Discuss the history and organization of FFA as it relates to the complete program of agricultural education.

  1. Explain the interrelationship of classroom and laboratory instruction, supervised agricultural experience, and FFA.
  2. Describe how, when, and why FFA was organized.
  3. Identify key FFA historical events.
  4. Identify the mission and strategies, colors, motto, emblem and parts of the emblem, and organizational structure of FFA.
  5. Recite and explain the meaning of the FFA Creed.
  6. Discuss the meaning and purpose of a program of activities and its committee structure.
  7. List FFA chapter officers, and discuss the role of each.

Objective 2
Identify opportunities in FFA.

  1. Describe FFA opportunities that develop leadership skills, personal growth, and career success.
  2. Summarize major state and national activities available to FFA members.

Objective 3
Describe FFA degrees, awards, and career development events (CDEs).

  1. List and explain the FFA degree areas.
  2. Identify FFA proficiency awards.
  3. List and discuss various team and individual CDEs.

Standard 2
Students will explain the role of supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs in agricultural education.

Objective 1
Examine the responsibilities and benefits associated with an SAE.

  1. Explain the meaning and benefits of supervised agricultural experience.
  2. Explain the characteristics of an effective SAE program and the responsibilities of those involved.

Objective 2
Determine the types of SAE programs.

  1. Compare entrepreneurship SAEs and placement SAEs.
  2. Describe research/experimentation SAEs.
  3. Describe exploratory SAEs.

Objective 3
Plan an SAE program.

  1. Identify the steps in planning an SAE program.
  2. Describe the function of a business/training plan and/or agreement in an SAE program.
  3. Develop a short-range plan and a long-range plan for an SAE program.
  4. Relate classroom and laboratory instruction to an SAE program.

Objective 4
Maintain and use SAE records.

  1. Explain the importance of keeping records on an SAE program.
  2. Explain how SAE records are organized.
  3. Follow approved procedures to make entries in SAE records.

Use the following Standard 1 and Standard 2 if this course is taught at the advanced level.

Standard 1
Students will develop personal, leadership, and career skills through FFA participation.

Objective 1
Assess the role of FFA participation in developing personal and leadership skills.

  1. Identify important personal skills and the strategies to use in developing the skills.
  2. Identify important leadership skills and the role of FFA participation in developing the skills.

Objective 2
Assess the role of FFA participation in developing career skills.

  1. List and describe proficiency awards appropriate for horticulture
  2. List and describe career development events appropriate for horticulture.
  3. Relate the importance of supervised agricultural experience to FFA achievement.
  4. Utilize FFA and supervised agricultural experience participation to gain advanced degrees of FFA membership.

Standard 2
Students will explain the maintenance and expansion of supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs in agricultural education.

Objective 1
Maintain and use SAE records.

  1. Explain how SAE records are maintained from year to year.
  2. Explain how to summarize and analyze SAE records.

Objective 2
Devise long-range plans for expanding SAE programs.

  1. Evaluate the overall quality of a current SAE, and determine how to make it more productive or profitable.
  2. Explain factors that should be considered in expanding an SAE program.
  3. Explain how placement and ownership SAE programs may be expanded.

Standard 3
Students will demonstrate an understanding of nursery components.

Objective 1
Explain nursery practices.

  1. Compare the different types of nurseries.
  2. Explain how a plant hardiness zone map and plant heat-zone map are used.
  3. Describe the three types of packaging of nursery crops and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of each (e.g., ball and burlap, container, and bare root).
  4. Explain how nursery stock is measured (e.g., trunk diameter, height, container size, etc.).
  5. Determine factors for selecting a nursery site.

Objective 2
Identify and categorize nursery plants.

  1. Explain systems used to classify plants.
  2. Classify nursery plants according to the hierarchical classification system, life cycles, plant use, and status as monocotyledons or dicotyledons.
  3. Identify flowering and shade trees.
  4. Identify fruit and nut trees and shrubs.
  5. Identify ornamental trees and shrubs.
  6. Identify ornamental grasses, ground covers, and vines.

Objective 3
Propagate nursery crops.

  1. Compare and contrast sexual and asexual reproduction in nursery crops.
  2. Diagram the process of plant pollination and fertilization of flowering plants.
  3. Describe the process of and conditions required for seed germination.
  4. Demonstrate techniques for growing nursery crops from seed.
  5. Describe optimal conditions for asexual propagation.
  6. Demonstrate techniques used to propagate plants by grafting, cutting, division, separation, and layering.
  7. Transplant nursery crops.

Objective 4
Describe proper tree and shrub maintenance practices and procedures.

  1. Identify symptoms of water stress in trees and shrubs.
  2. Explain recommended watering practices for trees and shrubs.
  3. Identify symptoms of nutrient deficiency in trees and shrubs.
  4. Explain guidelines for fertilizing trees and shrubs.
  5. Describe how mulching and composting are used to retain moisture and supplement nutrients in nursery operations.
  6. Identify tools used for pruning trees and shrubs.
  7. Demonstrate various techniques for pruning trees and shrubs.
  8. Describe the use of growth regulators in tree and shrub production.

Objective 5
Examine the physical and chemical properties of growing media in a nursery application.

  1. Describe the components of growing media.
  2. Describe the functions of growing media.
  3. Determine desirable properties of growing media.
  4. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of soilless media.
  5. Demonstrate proper techniques for sampling growing media.
  6. Test and determine pH level of various growing media.
  7. Interpret pH test results of a growing medium sample.
  8. Describe pH and how it is modified.

Standard 4
Students will describe integrated pest management in a nursery operation.

Objective 1
Describe the principles of integrated pest management (IPM).

  1. Explain IPM.
  2. Identify benefits of IPM.
  3. Describe pest control strategies associated with IPM.

Objective 2
Identify plant pests and diseases and their causes.

  1. Identify types of plant pests and disorders.
  2. Identify plant, insect, animal, and fungal pests.
  3. Identify infectious and noninfectious plant diseases.

Objective 3
Explain procedures for the safe handling, use, and storage of pesticides.

  1. Explain risks and benefits associated with the materials and methods used in plant pest management.
  2. Interpret pesticide labels.
  3. Explain procedures for mixing and storing pesticides.
  4. Describe types of pesticide controls and formulations.
  5. Explain the safety practices that should be followed when applying pesticides.
  6. Describe the proper disposal of surplus pesticides and empty containers.
  7. Evaluate environmental and consumer concerns regarding pest management strategies.

Standard 5
Students will demonstrate an understanding of nursery equipment and irrigation systems.

Objective 1
Plan, install, and maintain a nursery irrigation system.

  1. Determine plant needs for irrigation.
  2. Calculate water flow in gallons per minute (GPM).
  3. Identify and select components of irrigation systems, including pipes and joints.
  4. Plan and illustrate a distribution system.
  5. Calculate the cost of the parts, supplies, and labor for system installation.
  6. Cut, fit, and install PVC/poly pipes and fittings.
  7. Install valves and emitters.
  8. Perform an irrigation system test.
  9. Replace or repair irrigation system components.

Objective 2
Demonstrate the use of equipment and tools in nursery operations.

  1. Identify common equipment and tools and their use in nursery operations.
  2. Explain the meaning and importance of the operatorís manual.
  3. Identify the location and use of controls on equipment.
  4. Follow safe practices in the use of nursery operation equipment.

Objective 3
Properly maintain equipment used in nursery operations.

  1. Complete basic tire inspections and perform maintenance for safe tire performance.
  2. Check the oil level, and add oil if necessary.
  3. Check the fuel level, and add fuel if necessary.
  4. Service the air cleaner.

Standard 6
Students will explain nursery business concepts.

Objective 1
Prepare and price nursery plants for sale.

  1. Assess typical mark-up and pricing strategies.
  2. Attach price tags and care instructions.
  3. Describe effective packaging and delivery.
  4. Display nursery materials for sale.

Objective 2
Describe nursery business management.

  1. Demonstrate customer relations skills.
  2. Demonstrate the importance of effective inventory management.
  3. Recognize costs related to nursery production.
  4. Analyze the importance of marketing, promotion, and sales.
  5. Describe career opportunities in the nursery industry.
  6. Explain laws, codes, and regulations that affect the nursery industry.
  7. Demonstrate the importance of safety for nursery operation employees.

UEN logo - in partnership with Utah State Board of Education (USBE) and Utah System of Higher Education (USHE).  Send questions or comments to USBE Specialist - WILLIAM DEIMLER and see the CTE/Agricultural Education website. For general questions about Utah's Core Standards contact the Director - THALEA LONGHURST .  

These materials have been produced by and for the teachers of the State of Utah. Copies of these materials may be freely reproduced for teacher and classroom use. When distributing these materials, credit should be given to Utah State Board of Education. These materials may not be published, in whole or part, or in any other format, without the written permission of the Utah State Board of Education, 250 East 500 South, PO Box 144200, Salt Lake City, Utah 84114-4200.