Interior Design 2
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This course provides students the opportunity to develop skills in applying the elements and principles of design to interiors. Projects are integrated throughout the course to provide applications as the students’ study: architecture, furniture styles and constructions, surface treatments and backgrounds, design and function of space and lighting. FCCLA may be an integral part of this course.
Prerequisite: Interior Design 1
Core Standards of the Course
Students will review the elements and principles of design. (Interior Design 1 Strand 3, 4, 5, & 6) (Suggested 1-2 days)
Students will identify architectural features and styles.
Identify the American adaptations of housing styles and architectural features such as:
Complete a project related to architectural styles and features. (Architectural tour, scavenger hunt, presentation etc…)
Students will understand components of construction documents - a set of plans that a builder uses.
The components of construction documents are the site plan, floor plan, interior and exterior elevations and the electrical plans.
Identify and discuss the site plan - a drawing of the building location on the lot
Identify and discuss the floor plan as a 2-D scaled drawing that shows the layout of the rooms with blueprint symbols.
Identify and discuss elevations as a 2-D representation of a given side of a building or inside wall details.
Identify and discuss the electrical plan which shows lighting, switches, outlets, TV, phone and computer outlets.
Draw or draft a portion of a floor plan by hand or digital. Use a minimum of 3 attached rooms. (Can be commercial, residential, or use the FCCLA scenario.)
Use good line quality in ¼ inch scale.
Label each room, including room dimension and name.
Furnish each room using correct space planning guidelines.
Plan is neat and clean with professional lettering and a legend
Students will identify and explain various textiles.
Identify various textiles and factors that lead to the selection of specific textiles.
Identify natural textiles (cotton, linen, silk, wool) - come from plants or animals.
Identify manufactured textiles
- Synthetic - made with chemicals (acrylic, nylon, olefin, polyester)
- Cellulosic - made from plant material chemically converted to a soluble compound (acetate, rayon)
Identify basic weaves and finishes (plain, twill, satin, Jacquard, purpose of finishes).
|Weave Name ||Picture ||Description ||Characteristics |
|Plain || ||Formed by interlacing yarns one over, one under in regular sequence. ||Simple, basic weave that wears evenly. |
|Twill || ||Formed by "floating" one warp thread over two or three weft threads, then under one. This creates a diagonal wale ||Produces a firm, strong fabric with a visible diagonal line. |
|Satin || || Formed by "floating" one warp thread over four or more weft yarns then under one thread. The order of interlacing is staggered so the result is a smooth face with no wales ||The floats give satin fabric its sheen. |
|Jacquard || || An intricate, variegated weave made by lifting any number of warp threads and any number of weft threads to create a woven pattern in the fabric. || |
The weaves are created on a Jacquard loom.
Creates brocades, tapestries, and damask
Used for draperies and upholstery.
Students will identify and explain various flooring and wall treatments.
Identify floor treatments and factors that lead to their selection.
Discuss the characteristics of flooring types:
- Hard - durable, dent resistance, long lasting (wood - strip, plank, parquet; tile, ceramic tile, porcelain tile, and natural stone - marble, granite, slate, travertine)
- Engineered: similar to hard wood with a plywood underlayer, wears well, no gaps, no weather change, no need to refinish.
- Resilient - durable, wears well, returns to original shape after stress, quieter to walk on (vinyl)
- Soft - hardest to clean, will wear out, made from woven fibers (carpet, rugs.)
Discuss characteristics of carpet fibers
- nylon - most widely used, strong & durable, resists crushing and matting, good color retention
- olefin - inexpensive, lacks resiliency, easy to clean
- polyester - durable, soft, lacks resiliency, not crush resistant
- wool - long life, great resilience, resists crushing, soil resistant
Discuss carpet terms and how they affect quality and selection--
- pile - length of the yarns
- density - closeness of yarns
- fiber - a natural or synthetic substance processed into a thread or yarn of continuous length
Identify ceiling and wall treatments and factors that lead to their selection.
Paint is darker when dry. Choose a paint color that is slightly lighter than the one desired.
Discuss paint types
- latex/water based - quick drying, easy to apply, easy cleanup with water;
- oil based - durable, must use a solvent to clean up
Discuss paint finishes
- flat - reflects very little light, least washable;
- eggshell - small amount of shine, more washable than flat;
- satin - smooth, velvety look with a bit more gloss, easy to keep clean;
- semi-gloss - used most in residences, subtle shine, very washable;
- High gloss - shiniest, most durable and easiest to clean but shows more imperfections on the wall
Discuss appropriate wallpaper and terminology
- Wallpaper – traditional paper, need to use paste.
- Pre-pasted - paper with a dry coating of paste that only needs to be moistened.
- Peel and stick - easy to remove, flat or textured walls.
- Pattern repeats - how often the pattern will repeat, can be measured vertically and/or horizontally.
Discuss the various types of molding - strips of shaped wood used for trim or ornamentation in a room.
- chair-rail - trim running horizontally about 3' from the floor
- crown - a wide trim used on walls next to the ceiling
- base - a trim used on walls next to the floor
- wainscot - area of decorative wooden paneling on a wall
Identify window treatments and factors that lead to their selection. Identify the types of window treatments
Discuss window treatment considerations -
- direction of window: north - insulation, little light control; east - light control in a.m. south - a lot of light control, west - hot piercing light in p.m.
- light control: consider use of room (theatre, bedroom, etc.)
- shape of window: tall, narrow, arched, wide, short
- purpose of window: view, light, ventilation
- style of room: theme, décor, formality
- cost: wide range of prices
- maintenance: cleaning and care
- energy efficiency: keep heat/cold in or out
Identify the types of window treatments
|Treatment ||Image ||Definition |
|1. curtains || || A piece of material suspended at the top to form a covering or screen, typically one of a pair at a window sheared or gathered onto a rod |
|2. draperies || || Cloth coverings hanging in loose folds. Pleated panels hung on a rod. Formal, heavier fabric. |
|3. shades || || A single piece of material that is hung at the top of a window and that can be pulled down to cover the window |
|4. blinds || || A series of evenly spaced slats that may be opened or closed by cords |
|5. shutters || || Vertical sections of wood hinged together, much like a folding door. The sections have crosswise slats called louvers, which vary in width |
|6. valances || || A short length of fabric placed across the top of a window |
Discuss types and uses of light.
Discuss natural light.
- Direction of light impacts color - north or east, cool blueish cast; south or west, warm orange tones
- Use of natural light improves health and sense of well-being.
Discuss types of artificial light.
- incandescent - gives a yellow glow to rooms, uses more energy than other lighting types
- fluorescent - gives a blue glow and diffused, shadow less light
- halogen - expensive but long-lasting, bright, white light, most like sunlight, very hot bulbs
- LED-light emitting diode - More expensive bulb but can last up to 25 years, no heat, consumes less energy, more cost effective.
Discuss the uses of artificial light.
- general - provides enough light so you can see everything in the room,
- ceiling - lights mounted on the ceiling including surface mounted, semi- surface mounted, pendants,
- recessed - light fixtures hidden in the ceiling such as can lights or eyeball lights
- wall - lights mounted on the wall such as sconces
- task - focus light on the area where it is most needed, used for close-up activities.
- strip - a series of bulbs mounted together in a line
- accent/decorative - provides a concentrated beam of light that focuses on a decorative object or area
- cove - a light placed just below the ceiling with a board or deflector beneath it
- portable - such as lamps or clip on lights
- track - lighting mounted on a metal strip that allows fixtures to be placed anywhere along the strip
Students will distinguish features of selected furniture styles and characteristics of quality furniture.
Identify parts and features of furniture.
Identify examples of legs (cabriole, turned, tapered and splayed)
|Type ||Picture ||Definition |
|Cabriole || || A furniture leg that curves out at the middle and then tapers inward just above an ornamental foot. |
|Turned || ||Legs that have been shaped using various tools while a block of wood is spun on a lathe. |
|Tapered || || A leg that becomes smaller and thinner towards the bottom. |
|Splayed || || Legs that spread at an angle from the center of the piece. |
Identify examples of feet (pad, bun, claw-and-ball, and bracket)
|Pad || || Rounded flat pads or disks at the end of furniture legs |
|Bun || || Rounded or balled feet. |
|Ball and Claw || || Furniture foot fashioned to represent a bird's claw gripping a ball; often carved entirely of wood. |
|Bracket || || A simple corner foot that can have an s-shaped curve or an l-shaped curve |
Identify chair backs (ladder, splat, and shield)
|Ladder || || A chair back with a number of horizontal slats like a ladder. |
|Splat || || A chair back having a vertical wood panel in the center. Can resemble a vase of a fiddle. |
|Shield || ||A chair back having a form resembling that of a somewhat heart-shaped medieval shield. |
Identify decorative features (finial, pediment, reeding, fluting, turning)
|Finial || || A finishing ornament for a pediment, post, or spire. |
|Pediment || || A decorative design detail adapted from architecture and applied to furniture. |
|Reeding || || Rows of parallel convex beads used to embellish a leg. |
|Fluting || || Rows of parallel concave beads used to embellish a leg. |
|Turning || || Decorative spindles formed by turning a piece of wood on a lathe and cutting designs into the wood with a sharp knife as the piece spins. |
Identify illustrations of chair types
Identify examples of chairs (Windsor, wing, side, & arm)
|Wing || || A high-backed armchair with side pieces projecting from the back, originally in order to protect the sitter from drafts. |
|Arm || || A chair with side supports for the arms or elbows. There may or may not be fabric or structure between the support and the seat portion. |
|Side || || A straight-back chair without arms. |
|Windsor || || A wooden dining chair with a semicircular back supported by upright rods. |
Identify examples of tables (gate-leg and pedestal)
|Gate-leg || || A table with one or two drop leaves that are supported when in use by a hinged leg swung out from the frame. |
|Pedestal || || A table supported by a single central column. |
Identify upholstered pieces (camelback, Lawson, tuxedo sofas and ottoman)
|Camelback || || A sofa with a curved back, typically seen in more traditional styles like Queen Anne, Chippendale, or Federal. |
|Lawson || || A sofa with a short, squared, overstuffed back and seat cushions; and rolled or squared arms that are lower than the back. |
|Tuxedo || || A streamlined type of couch with arms the same height as its back. |
|Ottoman || || A low upholstered seat or footstool without a back or arms; the seat can be hinged to form a lid. |
|Chesterfield || ||A tufted style, low sofa with rolled arms, no back cushions and often leather or velvet. |
|Sectional / Modular || ||Consists of two or more joined sections that can be arranged in different configurations to fit a variety of room layouts. |
|Mid-century Modern || ||Minimalist designed sofa with clean lines and often square arms usually lower than the back. |
Discuss construction techniques used in upholstered furniture.
Identify construction considerations used in upholstered furniture -
- Padding - for shaping, soften cushions, prolongs fabric life (batting, down)
- Springs -
- flat (used for less expensive furniture, not as durable)
- coil springs (used for higher quality furniture).
- Cushions (seams, welts and cording should be smooth, patterns should match, zippers should be sewn straight, sufficient padding, tightly woven fabric)
Identify case goods (buffet, high boy, secretary, wardrobe/armoire)
|Type ||Picture ||Definition |
|Wardrobe/armoire || || A tall, freestanding cabinet with doors that hide shelves and drawers. There is also space for hanging clothes. |
|Secretary || || A wood desk with a foldout top, drawers and a hutch with shelves for books. The hutch can have wood or glass doors. |
|Buffet || ||A piece of furniture that has shelves and drawers, typically for storing dishes. Food can also be placed on the top for serving. |
|Highboy || || A tall chest of drawers. Generally made in two separate pieces but not meant to come apart. The piece is supported by four legs. |
Discuss the construction techniques used in case goods (wood furniture used for storage).
Identify types of joints (butt, corner block, dove-tail, dowel, mortis and tenon, tongue and groove)
|Butt Corner || |
|Dove-tail || |
|Dowel || |
|Mortis and tenon || |
|Tongue and groove || |
Discuss the characteristics and uses of hardwoods (deciduous trees that lose their leaves: birch, cherry, mahogany, maple, oak, walnut.) - more durable and dent resistant, preferred for fine furniture.
Discuss the characteristics and uses of soft woods (coniferous cone-bearing trees: cedar, pine, redwood, spruce, cypress, fir) - can develop cracks and dents, less expensive.
Discuss and identify the various finishes - the process of embellishing and/or protecting the surface of a wooden material used on case goods
- Stain - a finish that penetrates wood pores to enhance the natural color or give a different color to wood
- Varnish - a transparent coating used on wood
Discuss the use of manufactured lumber
- particleboard - made by combining chips of wood with resin and compressing the mixture to form a larger piece of wood
- plywood - made by laminating thin layers of inexpensive wood together, with the grain of each layer turned 90 degrees
- veneers - thin sheets layer of finished wood used as a top surface over other less expensive material in case goods
Complete a project related to furniture styles and features.
Students will understand the elements of an appropriate visual presentation.
Students review the criteria for presentation boards. (See Interior Design 1 Strand 7 Standard 1) A presentation board is a visual representation used to sell the designer’s ideas to a potential client. It will show the following:
Furniture choices & layout
Use a white or black board
Determine materials finishes and color schemes
Maintain good balance of positive and negative space
All graphics must be squared or rectangular, with straight edges.
Label with neat, architectural lettering and/or use an accurate key/legend
Professional boards should have major titles and samples backmounted with 1/8-1/4" contrasting borders.
All pictures (2-D) and samples (3-D) edges must be clean and secured well
Use the same background for all mounting.
Apply the principles and elements of design effectively in the layout.
Students create and practice a loose lay presentation. Select materials (flooring, paint, countertops, textiles, and hardware) to interchange and determine the desired design for a room based on a client profile.
Students will design a presentation board and description for one or more rooms. (It is suggested students do the FCCLA STAR event scenario for Interior Design Board preparation)
Students will apply their knowledge of visual presentation
Include a variety of actual 3-D samples that illustrate the completed design. (i.e. wall coverings, floor treatments, window treatments, furniture covering, etc.)
Include 2-D pictures, photos, or visuals of the design (i.e., furniture, lighting, accessories, etc.)
Arrange an effective overall design of the visuals and samples.
Prepare and present an accurate oral or written description of the presentation board: Describe the style, the color scheme and the feeling/mood created.
Describe the focal point and the way it was emphasized.
Describe the balance (symmetrical, asymmetrical, radial) and rhythm (transition, repetition, gradation, radiation, opposition) and the way they were created.
Describe how harmony was developed in the design.
Students will practice the workplace skills below as an integrated part of the strands and standards in this course.
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