Skip Navigation

Utah Core  •  Curriculum Search  •  All CTE/Family & Consumer Sciences Education Lesson Plans  •  USBE CTE/Family & Consumer Sciences Education website


CTE/Family & Consumer Sciences Education Curriculum Apparel Design and Production II
Printable Version Printable Version (pdf)


arrow icon Course Introduction


Core Standards of the Course

Strand 1
Students will increase knowledge and application of sewing machines, sergers, and pressing techniques.

Button to show links.

Standard 1
Learn and apply sewing machine functions and adjustments.

  1. Machine stitch selection:

    Straight stitch: used for the majority of sewing
    Stretch stitch: used for sewing on knits or other times when you need the stitching to be able to stretch
    Blind hem: used to sew a blind hem, edge stitch or stitch in the ditch
    Zigzag stitch: classic zigzag stitch
    Buttonhole stitch: series of stitches used to create a buttonhole

  2. Stitch length and width (i.e., increase length for top-stitching, baste, easing, gathering; increase width for zigzag stitch)
  3. Needle position, size, type, and common needles:

    Universal: general purpose stitching and fabrics
    Stretch: stretch and knit fabrics
    Sharp: silks and artificial leather
    Jean: reinforced to handle extra thick woven fabrics without breakage or skipped stitches

  4. Presser foot selection and pressure (e.g., all-purpose foot, buttonhole foot, zipper foot, blind hem foot, rolled hem foot; less pressure for heavier fabrics, more pressure for lighter fabrics)


Standard 2
Learn to operate, thread, and maintain a serger.

  1. Identify the needle stitch plate, feed dogs/system, presser foot, thread tensions, presser foot lever/lifter, handwheel, stitch length control, stitch width control, knives, and loopers (overcast on the serger).
  2. Thread, operate, and care for serger according to machine manual (e.g., clean, oil).

Standard 3
Use pressing tools to create a professional product.

Button to show lessons.
  1. Incorporate the practice of "press as you sew"
  2. Use correct pressing equipment (e.g., tailor's ham, sleeve board, seam roll, point presser, pressing cloth).

    Tailor's ham: for pressing curved areas of clothing (darts, shoulders, collars, etc.)
    Sleeve board: narrow board for sleeves
    Seam roll: oblong for long, project like sleeves
    Point presser: for narrow, hard-to-reach areas of collars, belts, cuffs, corners and points
    Pressing cloth: prevents scorching/melting of fabric

  3. Identify and use appropriate temperature settings for a various fabrics with different fiber content.

    *See Apparel Design and Prouduction II (pdf) for illustration

Performance Objective #1
Thread, operate and care for the serger.

Strand 2
Students will distinguish the different types of fabric and fiber characteristics.

Standard 1
Identify and review basic fibers (i.e., natural fibers include cotton, linen, silk, wool; manmade fibers include nylon, polyester, acrylic, rayon/lyocell, spandex, acetate).

Natural fiber characteristics: comes from plant and animals, moisture absorbent, more expensive
Cotton: absorbent, comfortable, durable, wrinkles, shrinks, easy to launder, plant source.
Linen: absorbent, natural luster, quick drying, wrinkles, frays, little stretch, plant source-flax
Silk: animal source-silk worm cocoon, absorbent, natural luster, insulating, strong, resilient, dyes well, expensive, degrades and yellows from age and sunlight.
Wool: animal source-fur, absorbent, strong, elastic, shrinks when laundered improperly, wrinkle resistant, warm
Manmade fiber characteristics: made from chemical compounds, heat sensitive/will melt, less absorbent to not at all absorbent, less expensive
Nylon: strong, elastic, water repellent, colorfast, frays easily
Polyester: good shape retention, easy to launder, wrinkle resistant, colorfast, blends well with other fibers, retains oily stains
Acrylic: resembles wool, soft, warm, nonabsorbent, pills, heat sensitive, can shrink or stretch
Rayon: soft and comfortable, drapes beautifully, blends well with other fibers, shrinks, poor shape retention, wrinkles, dyes well
Spandex: very elastic, adds stretch when blended with other fibers, requires stretch stitching techniques, shrinks
Acetate: high luster, drapes well, loses shape, wrinkles

  1. Introduce students to sustainable methods of fiber production.


Standard 2
Identify various types of fabric construction.

Button to show lessons.
  1. Identify basic weaves (plain, twill, satin)

    Plain: yarns interlace at right angles, passing alternately over and under each other; strong, durable, easy to sew, wrinkles easily
    Twill: one yarn passes over two or more yarns to create a diagonal pattern; soft, wrinkle resistant, hides soil.
    Satin: yarns float over four or more yarns, then pass under one; shiny, smooth surface, snags easily

    *See Apparel Design and Prouduction II (pdf) for illustration

  2. Identify basic knits (warp and weft)

    Warp: Tricot, tulle, lace
    Weft: Jersey, velour, fleece, interlock, rib, fake fur

    *See Apparel Design and Prouduction II (pdf) for illustration

  3. Identify non-woven fabrics (e.g., felt).
  4. Identify specific fabrics such as broadcloth, chambray, corduroy, double knit, gingham, interlock knit, oxford, tricot, and velour.
  5. Broadcloth: plain weave cotton or cotton/polyester; tightly woven fabric with a faint rib pattern
    Chambray: looks much like lightweight denim; plain woven fabric with a colored warp and a white filling that gives it a heathered look
    Corduroy: piled, vertical rib design; napped fabric that comes in varying weights; often identified by the width of the ribs or wales
    Double knit: two fabrics knitted together; made on a circular rib machine, with the two layers identical on each side; stable knit, less likely to curl or stretch out of shape
    Gingham: checkered pattern, lightweight, plain woven cotton or cotton blend
    Interlock knit: created on a knitting machine, with two separate one-by-one rib fabrics; soft, elastic, wrinkle resistant
    Oxford: traditional shirting fabric with a warp of two fine yarns and heavier weft or softly spun fill yarn; subtle basket weave look and silk-like finish
    Tricot: warp-knit fabric of various natural or synthetic fibers, as wool, silk polyester, having fine vertical ribs on the face and horizontal ribs on the back, used especially for making apparel
    Velour: similar to terrycloth, but with cut loops; thick, short pile; can be a knit or a woven; soft to the touch; rich appearance


Performance Objective #2
Perform a fiber identification lab. Use different ways of identifying fibers; for example, burn test, chemical test (acetone or bleach), or microscope observations.

Strand 3
Students will review and demonstrate pre-construction sewing techniques at the intermediate level.

Standard 1
Students will independently take measurements and choose appropriate fabric and make pattern alterations.

Button to show lessons.
  1. Determine pattern size based on body measurements and finished garment measurements. Look at finished garment measurements on pattern envelope and pattern pieces, then compare to body measurements to choose a good fit.
    • Natural waist, bust/chest, high bust, full hip, neck, sleeve length
    • Back-waist measurement, from prominent bone at base of neck to waist
  2. Review relationship between body measurements and pattern measurements and the use of ease (wearing ease, designing ease, layering ease, negative ease).

    Wearing ease: amount added to a person's body measurements so one can move in a garment
    Design ease: any amount of ease beyond the basic wearing ease that creates the style of a garment
    Layering ease: amount of ease added to clothing that will be worn over other clothing
    Negative ease: will measure smaller than actual body measurements, but will stretch to fit comfortably


  3. Use the suggested fabrics located on the back of the pattern envelope.
  4. Make pattern alterations (demonstrate length and width adjustments and back waist). Use the lengthen and shorten line on the pattern piece to add needed or take away inches.

    Width adjustment: amount needed to be added divided by the number of seams


Performace Objective #3
Make fitting adjustments; demonstrate length and width pattern alterations.

Standard 2
Apply pattern preparation techniques.

  1. Review basic pattern symbols (e.g., straight of grain arrows, notches, pattern markings, buttons and buttonholes, place on fold line, sizing lines, adjustment lines).
  2. Identify pattern symbols (e.g., pleat, dart, finished garment measurements, center front or back).

    Pleat: See Apparel Design and Prouduction II (pdf) for illustration
    Dart: See Apparel Design and Prouduction II (pdf) for illustration
    Finished garment measurements: measurements of the garment after it is completed
    Center front and back: where the center of the garment front or back is located

  3. Review pattern placement and layout on fabric (e.g., straight of grain is always parallel to the selvage; place on fold should be placed directly on the fold of the fabric; allows the garment to hang straight).
  4. Review one-way directional/nap layout (e.g., all pattern pieces must face the same direction; tops of the pattern pieces should be at the top of the direction of the design or nap).

Standard 3
Use appropriate marking techniques.

Strand 4
Students will use correct sewing construction techniques at the intermediate level.

Button to show links.

Standard 1
Practice intermediate stitching techniques and thread selection for apparel design sewing projects.

  1. Identify stitching techniques (e.g., dart, ease stitching, gathering, pleat, tuck, topstitching, understitching, stitch in the ditch, stay stitching, hem) and their applications.

    Dart: The goal is to sew a dart with a point that is as smooth as possible. Stitch from the wide end to the tip, do not back stitch at the point.
    Ease stitching: There are three ways to ease a seam: (1) gather before sewing the seam, (2) stretch the shorter seam as you sew the unequal layers together, or (3) let the machine ease the longer edge as the layers move under the presser foot.
    Gather: Tiny, soft folds of fabric that form when a larger piece of fabric is sewn to smaller piece. The fabric should determine the best method of gathering to use. The goal is to create small, evenly spaced folds of fabric along the gathered area. There are four basic ways to gather: (1) rows of basting stitches, (2) machine couch a cord, (3) use a ruffler attachment or gathering foot, and (4) zigzag over clear elastic.
    Pleat: All pleats involve folding fabric, and each folding strategy produces a different type of pleat (e.g., knife pleat, box pleat, inverted pleat).
    Tuck: A stitched fold of fabric that is usually decorative, but can also be used to add shape to a garment; formed so that the fold and stitching show on the right side of the fabric.
    Topstitching: A row of evenly spaced straight stitches visible on the right side of a garment; usually aligned parallel to an edge or a seam. Typical distance is 1/4" to 3/8"; however, it usually is a matter of taste.
    Understitching: A technique when seam allowances are sewn to a fabric layer to help keep the fabric from rolling to the right side of the garment; invisible from the right side of the garment. Grade and clip seam allowances before understitching. Press seam allowances toward the facing.
    Stitch in the ditch: Refers to machine stitching that is sewn in the "ditch" of a seam so that it sinks into the seam and stays out of sight.
    Stay stitching: A row of permanent, straight stitches sewn on a single layer to prevent stretching in key areas when you're handling the garment during the construction process. The stitching should be done just inside the seam allowance (1/2" from the cut edge if seam allowances are 5/8"). No back stitch is necessary.
    Hem: The finished edge on the bottom of a garment.

  2. Identify specialty threads (e.g., quilting, heavy duty, embroidery, metallic, elastic).

    Quilting: a strong cotton thread with a waxy coating to prevent tangling when used in hand-quilting. It is not appropriate for use in sewing machine.
    Heavy duty: Slightly heavier than all-purpose thread; to be used for prominent top-stitching.
    Embroidery: Decorative thread offered in a wide variety of vibrant colors. Silky, lustrous, and versatile, it is weaker than regular sewing thread and should not be used for construction. It is used for decorative stitches.
    Metallic: Add glitter and they are durable. All-purpose thread should be used on the bobbin; use metallic in upper looper on a serger.
    Elastic: Used for stretch shirring; usually wound by hand onto the bobbin. The bobbin tension must be adjusted when using this type of thread.

  3. Understand that serger thread is lighter-weight than all-purpose sewing machine thread.

Standard 2
Use appropriate techniques for enclosed seams (e.g, clipping, notching, layering/grading, trimming).

Button to show links.
  1. Clipping and notching a seam allowance make them more flexible. Clip a concave(inside) curve within 1/8 of the stitching so the seam allowance outer edge can spread when turned back to release tension of the seam. Notch a convex (outside) curve by cutting away V-shaped wedges from the seam allowance to remove bulk.

    *See Apparel Design and Prouduction II (pdf) for illustration

  2. Trimming refers to reducing any seam allowance wide. Grading is more specific and is done on enclosed seams where the layered seam allowances create excess bulk. Trimming is done on collars, lapels, facings, and underarms. To grade a seam allowance, trim the side closest to the outer portion of the garment to 1/8-3/16, then trim the other allowance 1/4-3/8.

Standard 3
Practice correct application techniques for applying interfacing and attaching facings or collars.

  1. Interfacing can fulfill the following functions: (1) reinforce edges, such as hems and front openings; (2) provide added body; (3) create stability in buttonholes; (4) prevent stretch in areas like a waistband or upper back; (5) build shape in lapels and collars; and (6) provide a crisp finish in areas such as pockets.
  2. Select and apply appropriate interfacing (fusible, non-fusible).
    • Sew-in/non-fusible interfacing must be anchored to the garment with stitches, either sewn into a seam or sewn onto a layer of fabric before being sewn into the garment. To apply, sew the interfacing to the wrong side of fabric within the seam allowance.
    • Fusible interfacing is attached to the fashion fabric with glue activated by heat from the iron. To apply non-fusible, use heat, moisture and a press cloth. Follow the manufacturer's instructions.
    • Choose between sew-in/non-fusible and fusible based on the project fabric, the garment's requirement and preference.
  3. Demonstrate techniques associated with attaching facings or collars.
    • Facings used to finish edges at necklines, armholes, front and back openings, hems, vents, and slits. Facings add support, prevent the edge from stretching and ensure a flat, crisp outer edge.
    • Three types of collars: flat (Peter Pan), rolled (stands up slightly on the neck) and standing (Mandarin).

Standard 4
Identify each of the following and construct one or more: darts, pleats, and gathers.

*See Apparel Design and Prouduction II (pdf) for illustration

Standard 5
Identify uses and application of commercially prepared bias tape. Single or double fold, bias cut fabric strips have pre-folded edges that meet in the middle to bind raw fabric edges. They are prepackaged in several widths and come in a wide variety of colors, but you can make your own.

  1. Identify types of bias tape (single-fold, double-fold).

    Single-fold tape has two folds. Each long edge is folded 1/4" to the center on the bias wrong side. Comes in varying widths.
    Double-fold tape starts as a single fold strip, then it's folded in half again, either exactly down the center, or with one side slightly wider (to be placed on the underside when it's stitched, so the topstitching is sure to catch it). Comes in varying widths.

  2. Identify uses of bias tape (seam finish, hemming, facing, and trim).


Standard 6
Identify each of the following sleeves: raglan and set in (i.e., closed/round method and open/flat method).

Raglan sleeves (two-piece and one-piece) join the bodice in a diagonal seam that extends from the neckline to the side seam.
Set-in sleeves are joined to the garment bodice at a seam that circles over the shoulder and under the arm. A well-made set-in sleeve meets at the shoulder in a pucker-free, smooth, curved seam. Two methods of construction: closed/round method and open/flat method.

*See Apparel Design and Prouduction II (pdf) for illustration


Standard 7
Identify each of the following zipper applications, and construct one or more: centered, lapped, fly, exposed/sport, invisible.

Centered zippers are found on a variety of garments, including dresses, skirts and pants. Centered zippers align the seam over the zipper teeth and the zipper tape is covered by symmetrical overlaps on each side. Parallel lines of topstitching flank the seam.
Lapped zippers are sewn to completely hide the zipper under a flap of fabric, and are found in skirts, pants, and center backs of dresses.
Fly zippers are used in pants. Women's garments lap right over left, and men's garments lap left over right.
Exposed zippers are sewn directly on the outside of the garment. The zipper tape becomes a decorative feature. When installing an exposed zipper, turn the seam allowances to the right side, topstitch the zipper over the seam allowance to cover the fabric edge.
Invisible zippers, when inserted correctly, are unnoticeable except for the zipper pull. They are incredibly flexible and soft, making them ideal for fine fabrics.

*See Apparel Design and Prouduction II (pdf) for illustration


Button to show lessons.

Standard 8
Identify types and complete correct application of hems.

  1. Identify steps of hem preparation (i.e., appropriate length and width, reduce bulk, ease, pressing)
  2. Apply correct edge finishes (e.g., clean finished, zigzag, served).
  3. Complete one or more of the following hemming techniques: hand stitched hems, double fold hem, machine blind hem, rolled hem.


Performance Objective #4
Complete all of the following skills as part of the course. A minimum of 9 skills need to be included as part of an apparel or accessory/personal item project.

  1. Stay stitching
  2. Trimming
  3. Grading
  4. Clipping or notching
  5. Understitching
  6. Darts, tucks, pleats, or gathers
  7. Select and apply interfacing
  8. Sew one or more correct sleeve style (i.e., set in, raglan)
  9. Demonstrate one or more correct zipper applications
  10. Attach one or more appropriate closure (i.e., hook and eye, snap, pant/skirt hook
  11. Complete two of the following hemming techniques: hand-stitched hems, double fold hem, machine blind hem, rolled hem or other hemming technique
  12. Demonstrate the application of bias tape

Performance Objective #5
Use commercially prepared directions/guide sheets.

UEN logo - in partnership with Utah State Board of Education (USBE) and Utah System of Higher Education (USHE).  Send questions or comments to USBE Specialist - THALEA LONGHURST and see the CTE/Family & Consumer Sciences Education website. For general questions about Utah's Core Standards contact the Director - THALEA LONGHURST.

These materials have been produced by and for the teachers of the State of Utah. Copies of these materials may be freely reproduced for teacher and classroom use. When distributing these materials, credit should be given to Utah State Board of Education. These materials may not be published, in whole or part, or in any other format, without the written permission of the Utah State Board of Education, 250 East 500 South, PO Box 144200, Salt Lake City, Utah 84114-4200.