Sewing Construction & Textiles 2
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Students will strengthen and broaden apparel design, production, and project management techniques. In this course students will design and construct intermediate level projects using various construction techniques. Preparing students for industry and entrepreneurial opportunities. Student leadership and competitive events (FCCLA) may be integrated into this course.
Prerequisite: Sewing Construction and Textiles 1/Sport and Outdoor Design 1
Core Standards of the Course
Students will review basic sewing knowledge.
Review sewing tools knowledge and machine functions. (Refer to Sewing Construction & Textiles 1) Sewing machine use and maintenance.
Tools and equipment.
- Reading a pattern.
Basic construction techniques.
Develop machine knowledge and skills.
Identify various specialty presser feet.
- All-purpose foot, buttonhole foot, zipper foot, blind hem foot, rolled hem foot.
Identify specialty needles.
- Heavy duty needle.
- Double needle.
- Microtech Needle.
Identify specialty threads.
- Quilting: a strong cotton thread with a waxy coating to prevent tangling when used in hand-quilting. It is not appropriate for use in sewing machine.
- Heavy duty: Slightly heavier than all-purpose thread; to be used for prominent topstitching.
- Embroidery: Decorative thread offered in a wide variety of vibrant colors. Silky, lustrous, and versatile, it is weaker than regular sewing thread and should not be used for construction. It is used for decorative stitches.
- Metallic: Add glitter and they are durable. All-purpose thread should be used on the bobbin; use metallic in upper looper on a serger.
- Elastic: Used for stretching shirring; usually wound by hand onto the bobbin. The bobbin tension must be adjusted when using this type of thread.
- Serger: lighter weight than all-purpose sewing machine thread.
Identify specialty stitches.
- Stretch stitch: used for sewing on knits or other times when you need the stitching to be able to stretch.
- Blind hem: used to sew a blind hem, edge stitch or stitch in the ditch.
- Buttonhole stitch: series of stitches used to create a buttonhole.
Operate, thread, and maintain a serger.
Identify the needle stitch plate, feed dogs/system, presser foot, thread tensions, presser foot lever/lifter, handwheel, stitch length control, knives and loopers (overcast on the serger).
Thread, operate, and care for serger according to machine manual (i.e. clean, oil).
Creates two types of stitches
- needles and looper work together to create a straight and flatlock stitches.
Use pressing tools to create a professional product.
Incorporate the practice of "press as you sew"
Use pressing equipment.
- Tailor’s ham: for pressing curved areas of clothing. (darts, shoulders, collars, etc.)
- Sleeve board: narrow board for sleeves.
- Seam roll: oblong for long, product like sleeves.
- Point presser: for narrow, hard-to-reach areas of collars, belts, cuffs, corners and points.
- Pressing cloth: prevents scorching/melting of fabric.
Identify and use appropriate temperature settings for various fabrics with different fiber content.
Thread/operate and care for the serger.
Students will distinguish the different types of fabric and fiber characteristics.
Identify and review basic fibers.
General Characteristics: Natural fiber characteristics comes from plant and animals, moisture absorbent, more expensive.
Cotton: Plant source
- Pros - absorbent, comfortable, durable, easy to launder, stronger wet than dry.
- Cons - wrinkles, shrinks, mildews.
Linen: Plant source (flax)
- Pros - absorbent, natural luster, quick drying.
- Cons - wrinkles, frays, little stretch, mildew.
Silk: Animal source (silkworm cocoon)
- Pros - absorbent, natural luster, insulating, strong, resilient,
- Cons - degrades and yellows from age and sunlight, weaker wet than dry, watermarks.
Wool: Animal source. (fur)
- Pros - absorbent, strong, elastic, flame resistant wrinkle resistant.
- Cons - shrinks when laundered improperly, bleaches with sunlight damaged by moths.
Identify manufactured fibers (i.e. nylon, polyester, bamboo, rayon, spandex, and their characteristics.
General characteristics: made from chemical processes (some made from natural elements mixed with chemicals while other are made completely from non-natural substances)
- Nylon: Petrochemical sources.
- Pros - strong, water repellent, colorfast, abrasion resistant.
- Cons - frays easily, non-recyclable.
- Polyester: Petrochemical source.
- Pros - good shape retention, easy to launder, wrinkle resistant, colorfast, blendswell with other fibers.
- Cons - retains oily stains, pills, builds static.
- Rayon: Cellulose source.
- Pros - soft and comfortable, drapes well, blends well with other fibers, dyes well.
- Cons - shrinks, poor shape retention, wrinkles. Dry clean only.
- Spandex: Petrochemical source.
- Pros - very elastic, adds stretch when blended with other fibers, and resilient tooutdoor elements. (sun, sea and sand)
- Cons - shrinks, damaged by heat and chlorine.
- Bamboo: Cellulose source.
- Pros - soft, strong, water absorbent, renewable.
- Cons - wrinkles, takes longer to dry and yellow with time.
Identify various types of fabric construction.
Classify basic weaves.
- Plain: yarns interlace at right angles, passing alternately over and under each other; soft, durable, easy to sew, wrinkles easily.
- Twill: one yarn passes over two or more yarns to create a diagonal pattern; strong, wrinkle resistant, hides soil.
- Satin: yarns float over four or more yarns, then pass under one; shiny, smooth surface, snags easily
Classify basic knits.
- Warp: Yarns move upward in a zigzag fashion
- Weft: Yarns move horizontally.
Classify non-woven fabrics (i.e. felt and bonded).
Identify specific fabrics.
Denim: twill weave made of single hard-twisted yarns with colored warp and white or undyed fill.
Flannel: woven fabric made of cotton where the surface has been slightly brushed created a soft-napped fabric.
Canvas: extremely durable plain-woven fabric.
Calico: a plain-weave cotton cloth printed with small-scale design.
Corduroy: piled, vertical rib design; napped fabric that comes in varying weights; often identified by the width of the ribs or wales.
Satin: recognized by its smooth, lustrous surface and woven with long, floating yarns in the warp; silk, polyester, acetate and rayon are common fabrications.
Rib knit: double knit fabric where the rib wales alternate on the face and back of the fabric.
Jersey knit: any knitted fabric without distinct ribs; can be lightweight to heavy, and made in a variety of fibers, wool, cotton, silk, nylon or blends.
Fleece: soft napped insulating fabric often made from polyester or recycled plastics.
Sweatshirt fleece: type of jersey fabric with plain knit stitches on the front and fleece on the back.
Create a fabric file containing a sample of denim, flannel, canvas, calico, corduroy, satin, rib knit, jersey knit, fleece, sweatshirt fleece.
Students will demonstrate pre-construction techniques at the intermediate level.
Students will independently take measurements, determine pattern size and make pattern alterations.
Determine pattern size based on body measurements and finished garment measurements. Look at finished garment measurements on pattern envelope and pattern pieces, then compare to body measurements to choose a good fit.
- Natural waist, bust/chest, high bust, full hip, neck, sleeve length
- Back-waist measurement, from prominent bone at base of neck to waist
Review relationship between body measurements and pattern measurements and the use of ease.
- Wearing ease: amount added to a person’s body measurements so one can move in a garment.
- Design ease: any amount of ease beyond the basic wearing ease that creates the style of a garment.
- Layering ease: amount of ease added to clothing that will be worn over other clothing.
- Negative ease: will measure smaller than actual body measurements but will stretch to fit comfortably.
Apply pattern preparation techniques.
Review basic pattern symbols (e.g., straight of grain arrows, notches, pattern markings, buttons and buttonholes, place on fold line, sizing lines, adjustment lines).
Identify pattern symbols. (e.g., pleat/tuck, dart, finished garment measurements, center front or back)
Finished garment measurements: measurements of the garment after it is completed.
Center front and back: where the center of the garment front or back is located.
Review pattern placement and layout on fabric. (i.e. straight of grain is always parallel to the selvage; place on fold should be placed directly on the fold of the fabric; allows the garment to hang straight)
Review one-way directional/nap layout. (i.e. all pattern pieces must face the same direction; tops of the pattern pieces should be at the top of the direction of the design or nap)
Student will use appropriate marking techniques.
Students will use correct sewing construction techniques at the intermediate level.
Students will use correct sewing construction techniques at the intermediate level.
Identify and demonstrate stitching techniques and their applications.
- Baste stitch: lengthened stitch used for ease stitching, gathering and temporary stitching.
- Blind Hem: The finished edge on the bottom of a garment sewn so that the stitching is invisible.
- Dart: The goal is to sew a dart with a point that is as smooth as possible. Stitch from the wide end to the tip, do not back stitch at the point to secure, leave long threads and tie.
- Ease stitching: There are three ways to ease a seam: (1) gather before sewing the seam, (2) stretch the shorter seam as you sew the unequal layers together, or (3) let the machine ease the longer edge as the layers move under the presser foot.
- Gather: Tiny, soft folds of fabric that form when a larger piece of fabric is sewn to smaller piece. The fabric should determine the best method of gathering touse. The goal is to create small, evenly spaced folds of fabric along the gathered area. There are four basic ways to gather: (1) rows of basting stitches, (2)machine couch a cord, (3) use a ruffler attachment or gathering foot, and (4)zigzag over clear elastic.
- Pleat: All pleats involve folding fabric, and each folding strategy produces a different type of pleat. (e.g., knife pleat, box pleat, inverted pleat)
- Stay stitching: A row of permanent, straight stitches sewn on a single layer to prevent stretching in key areas when you’re handling the garment during the construction process. The stitching should be done just inside the seam allowance (1/2” from the cut edge if seam allowances are 5/8”). No back stitch is necessary.
- Stitch- in- the- ditch: Refers to machine stitching that is sewn in the “ditch” of a seam so that it sinks into the seam and stays out of sight.
- Topstitching: A row of evenly spaced straight stitches visible on the right side of a garment; usually aligned parallel to an edge or a seam. Typical distance is 1/4”to 3/8”; however, it usually is a matter of taste.
- Tuck: A stitched fold of fabric that is usually decorative but can also be used to add shape to a garment; formed so that the fold and stitching show on the right side of the fabric.
- Understitching: A technique when seam allowances are sewn to a fabric layer to help keep the fabric from rolling to the right side of the garment; invisible from the right side of the garment. Grade and clip seam allowances before understitching. Press seam allowances toward the facing.
Practice correct application techniques for applying interfacing and attaching facings or collars.
Interfacing can fulfill the following functions:
- reinforce edges, such as hems and front openings.
- provide added body.
- create stability in buttonholes.
- prevent stretch in areas like a waistband or upper back.
- build shape in facings, lapels and collars.
- provide a crisp finish in areas such as pockets.
Select and apply appropriate interfacing (fusible, non-fusible).
- Sew-in/non-fusible interfacing must be anchored to the garment with stitches, either sewn into a seam or sewn onto a layer of fabric before being sewn into the garment. To apply, sew the interfacing to the wrong side of fabric within the seam allowance.
- Fusible interfacing is attached to the fashion fabric with glue activated by heat from the iron. To apply non-fusible, use heat, moisture and a press cloth. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
- Choose between sew-in/non-fusible and fusible based on the project fabric, the garment’s requirement and preference.
Demonstrate techniques associated with attaching facings or collars.
- Facings used to finish edges at necklines, armholes, front and back openings, hems, vents, and slits. Facings add support, prevent the edge from stretching and ensure a flat, crisp outer edge.
Three types of collars:
- Flat: falling or lying flat on the shoulders (i.e. Golf shirt, Sailor Collar)
- Rolled: Stands up and falls on the neck (i.e. Dress shirt, Turtleneck)
- Standing: Stands up against neck (i.e. Mandarin, Banded)
Identify each of the following sleeves:
Raglan sleeves: (two-piece and one-piece) join the bodice in a diagonal seam that extends from the neckline to the side seam.
Set-in sleeves: Joined to the garment bodice at a seam that circles over the shoulder and under the arm. A well-made set-in sleeve meets at the shoulder in a pucker-free, smooth, curved seam.
Two methods of construction: closed/round method and open/flat method.
Identify each of the following zipper applications and construct one or more.
Centered zippers are found on a variety of garments, including dresses, skirts and pants. Centered zippers align the seam over the zipper teeth and the zipper tape is covered by symmetrical overlaps on each side. Parallel lines of top stitching flank the seam.
Lapped zippers are sewn to completely hide the zipper under a flap of fabric, and are found in skirts, pants, and center backs of dresses.
Fly zippers are used in pants. Women’s garments lap right over left, and men’s garments lap left over right.
Exposed zippers are sewn directly on the outside of the garment. The zipper tape becomes a decorative feature. When installing an exposed zipper, turn the seam allowances to the right side, topstitch the zipper over the seam allowance to cover the fabric edge.
Invisible zippers, when inserted correctly, are unnoticeable except for the zipper pull. They are incredibly flexible and soft, making them ideal for fine fabrics.
Identify types and complete correct application of hems.
Identify steps of hem preparation (i.e., appropriate length and width, reduce bulk, ease, pressing).
Apply correct edge finishes (e.g., clean finished, zigzag, serged).
Complete one or more of the following hemming techniques: hand stitched hems, double fold hem, machine blind hem, rolled hem.
Complete all of the following skills as part of the course. A minimum of 8 skills need to be included as part of an apparel or accessory/personal item project.
Clipping or notching
Darts, tucks, pleats, or gathers
Select and apply interfacing
Sew one or more correct sleeve style (i.e., set in, raglan)
Demonstrate one or more correct zipper applications
Attach one or more appropriate closure (i.e., hook and eye, snap, pant/skirt hook
Complete two of the following hemming techniques: hand-stitched hems, double fold hem, machine blind hem, rolled hem or other hemming technique
Demonstrate the application of bias tape
Use commercially prepared directions/guide sheets.
Students will develop professional and interpersonal skills needed for success in the fashion industry.
Determine the difference between hard skills and soft skills.
- Hard Skills: Hard skills are specific, teachable abilities that can be defined and measured
- Soft Skills: Personal attributes that enable someone to interact effectively and harmoniously with other people.
Identify soft skills needed in the workplace
- Respect Legal requirements/expectations
- Good communication skills
- Resourcefulness & creativity
- Work Ethic
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