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Science - Secondary Curriculum SEEd - Botany
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Core Standards of the Course

Plants have many different specialized structures (cells, tissues, and organs) that function to help them survive in their environment. These structures carry out specific life processes in plants. Plants have the ability to sense and respond to external stimuli in their environment.

Standard BOTN.1.1
Ask questions to investigate and provide explanations about basic plant structures and their related functions. Emphasize structures at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels. Examples of plant structures could include roots, root hairs, stem, phloem, xylem, cambium, leaf, stoma, flower, ovary, petal, stamen, or pistil.

Standard BOTN.1.2
Construct an explanation supported by evidence relating plant structures to plant processes. Examples of processes could include photosynthesis, respiration, transport, growth, reproduction, or seed dispersal.

Standard BOTN.1.3
Develop and use models to explain the cause for how plants sense and respond to external stimuli in their environment. Examples of external stimuli could include light, water, or soil changes.

Plants can be compared taxonomically by comparing their structures, genes, and chemical processes. Plants are organized into taxonomic groups. Methods used to classify plants have changed over time with advancements in technology. The fossil record and other evidence show major changes in plants through geologic time. Plants coevolve with animals and other plants that have shared a symbiotic relationship for millions of years.

Standard BOTN.2.1
Construct an explanation based on evidence to compare patterns observed in structures, functions, and processes of different kinds of plants. Emphasize comparisons of nonvascular to vascular plants and seedless to seed plants.

Standard BOTN.2.2
Construct an argument based on evidence to classify plants into major plant divisions by observing patterns in physical or chemical characteristics. Emphasize traditional methods and emerging technologies used to identify and classify plants. Examples of technologies could be a dichotomous key, field guide, or molecular analysis (genes or chemicals).

Standard BOTN.2.3
Develop and use models to explain the origin of changes in major plant structures and organs through geologic time in response to environmental changes. Examples of changes in major plant structures could include development of vascular tissues or changing from spores to seeds).

Standard BOTN.2.4
Construct an explanation about the coevolution (change) of plant structures with animals and other plants. Examples of coevolution of plants could be due to pollination, nitrogen fixation, competition, and defenses from predators/parasites.

Plants require matter and energy for survival. Plants affect their environment by providing diverse habitats for other organisms. Plant adaptations help them to survive changes that occur regularly in their environments. Changes in nutrient cycles in an environment may affect plant populations. States, counties, and communities create management plans to control invasive plant species and conserve native plants species.

Standard BOTN.3.1
Plan and carry out an investigation to explain how plants depend upon their environment to obtain the matter and energy necessary for survival. Examples of matter and energy in their environment could include soil, air, weather, other plants, or animals.

Standard BOTN.3.2
Develop a modelaffect their environment by providing diverse habitats for other organisms. Examples of other organisms that depend on plants could include birds, insects, or other wildlife.

Standard BOTN.3.3
Construct an argument based on evidence to predict which plant adaptations have led to (caused) increased survival rates in different stressful environments. Examples of stressful environments include changes in water, salinity, or temperature extremes.

Standard BOTN.3.4
Analyze and interpret data from investigations or models to describe how changes and disruptions in major nutrient cycles might affect plants. Examples of nutrient cycles could include carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, or phosphorus.

Standard BOTN.3.5
Evaluate current plans to manage the control of an invasive plant species in Utah or to manage the conservation of a native plant species in Utah focusing on the population's proportion and quantity. Define the problem, identify criteria and constraints, analyze available data on proposed solutions, and determine if the plan is an optimal solution. Emphasize the impact that the plant species has on its environment.

Humans rely on plants for many different purposes. Investigations and data analysis can help us understand effective techniques for growing plants and improving fruit production. Plant pests and diseases affect plant crops and may have effects on humans and society. Genetically Modified plants may provide solutions to the effects of pest and disease and may also be a solution to food shortages, however, may also come with risks.

Standard BOTN.4.1
Construct an explanation for how plants and their structures are used in different societies. Examples of the use of plants could include agriculture, horticulture, industry, medicine, or biotechnology.

Standard BOTN.4.2
Plan and carry out investigations to determine effective techniques that cause improved plant growth and/or fruit production. Examples of testable variables could include soil type, nutrient/fertilizer, watering, spacing, or timing.

Standard BOTN.4.3
Analyze and interpret data to determine how plants are affected by insect pests, competing weeds, and diseases. Emphasize how plant pests and diseases in major plant crops affect humans, animals, and the economy and solutions to controlling them.

Standard BOTN.4.4
Construct an argument based on evidence for or against the use and effects of genetically modified plants. Emphasize comparing the benefits and risks for genetic modification. Examples of genetic modification could be through cross pollination and modern biotechnology.

UEN logo - in partnership with Utah State Board of Education (USBE) and Utah System of Higher Education (USHE).  Send questions or comments to USBE Specialist - Milo  Maughan and see the Science - Secondary website. For general questions about Utah's Core Standards contact the Director - Jennifer  Throndsen.

These materials have been produced by and for the teachers of the State of Utah. Copies of these materials may be freely reproduced for teacher and classroom use. When distributing these materials, credit should be given to Utah State Board of Education. These materials may not be published, in whole or part, or in any other format, without the written permission of the Utah State Board of Education, 250 East 500 South, PO Box 144200, Salt Lake City, Utah 84114-4200.