Mathematics Standards for 4-Year-Olds
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Mathematics is a way of thinking about patterns, relationships, and seeking multiple solutions to problems. Children’s knowledge of math concepts and language are used in all learning domains.
Children learn mathematics best when their natural interests and curiosity are nurtured through intentional instruction. Quality learning environments should focus on actual hands-on experiences during play and interaction with others to incorporate well-designed mathematical experiences. Preschool children should experience language-rich environments that help them connect mathematical concepts, problem-solving, and reasoning skills to previous knowledge.
ADULTS SUPPORT LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS WHEN THEY:
- Give children adequate time to explore and experiment with manipulatives before starting teacher planned instruction.
- Design experiences where children explore and experience their environment to identify spatial relationships such as, “How many children fit inside the castle in the outdoor area?”
- Model and encourage correct mathematical language throughout the day.
- Use mathematical language to extend children’s understanding within the context of their experiences, such as: “Do you want half a glass of milk or a full glass of milk?” or “Would you like more or fewer grapes than I have?”
- Explore addition and subtraction, and compare objects using measurable attributes (length, width, or size) in the context of classroom play or teacher-guided activities.
- Integrate mathematical experiences, including stories, chants, and songs to reinforce mathematical concepts such as “Five Little Speckled Frogs,” “Five Little Ducks,” and “The Three Billy Goats Gruff.”
- Provide a variety of manipulatives and materials in math centers.
- Integrate mathematics throughout the day (for example, counting snacks, identifying shapes, ordering objects by length or size).
- Design home experiences to incorporate math skills (for example, count steps from the bed to the door, count chairs, find shapes in furniture, find patterns in the tablecloth).
- Use a variety of tools to incorporate mathematical concepts (for example, water table, sandbox, modeling clay, blocks).
Core Standards of the Course
Strand 1: COUNTING AND CARDINALITY
Counting and cardinality includes the ability to identify by name, count in sequence, use one-to-one correspondence, and describe quantities of objects counted.
Standard Math 4 yr.1.1
Count to 20 by ones.
Standard Math 4 yr.1.2
In the sequence of 1–10, identify numbers that come before or after one another.
Standard Math 4 yr.1.3
Count a number of objects from 0–10 and begin to associate them with a written numeral.
Standard Math 4 yr.1.4
Name written numerals 0–10.
Standard Math 4 yr.1.5
Use one-to-one correspondence when counting objects to ten.
Standard Math 4 yr.1.6
When counting objects to ten, understand that the last number counted in a set tells how many.
Standard Math 4 yr.1.7
Count two sets of objects up to 10 to determine which has more.
Strand 2: OPERATIONS AND ALGEBRAIC THINKING
Operations and algebraic thinking involve identifying and manipulating simple patterns, the understanding of addition as putting together and adding to, and the understanding of subtraction as taking apart and removing from.
Standard Math 4 yr.2.1
Understand and represent addition up to five (adding to or putting together) and subtraction (taking from or taking apart) with concrete objects, fingers, movement, and simple drawings.
Standard Math 4 yr.2.2
With prompting and support, solve addition and subtraction word problems created by the teacher using up to five concrete objects to represent the problem (for example, “Bring me three blocks, now bring me two more. How many blocks do we have?”).
Standard Math 4 yr.2.3
Take apart numbers less than or equal to five by using objects with different attributes (for example, 5 can be taken apart into sets of 2 blue and 3 yellow or 1 square and 4 circles).
Standard Math 4 yr.2.4
Use concrete objects to make sums of 5 using quantities from 0–5. (for example, 0 and 5 make a set of 5, 2 and 3 make a set of 5.)
Standard Math 4 yr.2.5
Duplicate, extend, and create simple patterns (for example, ababab).
Strand 3: MEASUREMENT AND DATA
Measurement and Data involve the ability to describe and compare measurable attributes of objects, classify objects, and count the number of objects in each category.
Standard Math 4 yr.3.1
Describe objects using vocabulary specific to measurable attributes (for example, length [long/short], weight [heavy/light], size [big/small], and distance [near/far]).
Standard Math 4 yr.3.2
Directly compare two objects using measurable attributes (for example, length [longer/shorter], weight [heavier/lighter], and size [bigger/smaller]).
Standard Math 4 yr.3.3
Classify/sort objects into given categories (for example, color, size, shape) by specified attributes.
Standard Math 4 yr.3.4
Compare the number of objects in each category to identify which groups contain more or less, or are the same.
Strand 4: GEOMETRY
Geometry involves the ability to identify, describe, compare, and create shapes.
Standard Math 4 yr.4.1
Describe objects in the environment by using names of shapes and identify the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to.
Standard Math 4 yr.4.2
Identify and name basic shapes regardless of their size and/or orientation (the way the object is turned or flipped).
Standard Math 4 yr.4.3
Begin to explore that shapes can be two-dimensional (flat) or three-dimensional (solid).
Standard Math 4 yr.4.4
Describe attributes of basic two-dimensional shapes including size, number of sides, number of corners, etc.
Standard Math 4 yr.4.5
Create basic shapes using a variety of media (for example, blocks, stickers, play dough/clay, art supplies).
Standard Math 4 yr.4.6
Explore combining basic shapes to create new shapes (for example, two triangles make a rhombus).
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