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CTE/Arts, Audio/Visual Technology and Communication Curriculum Fashion Design Merchandising
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Core Standards of the Course

Strand 1
Students will recognize basic fashion concepts and terminology.

Standard 1
Review fashion terms. (Fashion Design Studio Standard 1)
Accessories, apparel, avant-garde, classic, composite, design detail, draped, fad, fashion, fashion cycle, fit, garment type, haute couture, ready to wear, silhouette, style, tailored, trend, wardrobe.

Standard 2
Identify fashion products.

  1. Goods – tangible items that are made, manufactured, or grown. They include apparel, textiles, accessories, and other fashion products.
  2. Services – intangible things that people do, such as tasks performed for customers.They include tailoring, cosmetology services, and stylist.

Strand 2
Students will examine the basics of fashion marketing and associated careers.

Standard 1
Define marketing terms.

  1. Marketing – The process of developing, promoting, and distributing products to satisfy customers’ needs and wants. It is a series of activities that fashion businesses undertake so that customers will buy products from them instead of their competitors.
    • Marketing Concept – To market effectively, fashion marketers follow the principles of the marketing concept, which is the idea that businesses must satisfy customers’ needs and wants in order to make a profit.
    • Target Market – The specific group of people that a business is trying to reach.
    • Market Segmentation – Identifying a group of consumers, or target market. Away of analyzing a market by categorizing specific characteristics.
    • Fashion Merchandising – The planning, buying, and selling of fashion apparel and accessories to offer the right merchandise blend to meet consumer demand.

Standard 2
Describe the 4 Ps of marketing.

  1. Product – What a company is offering for sale to customers to satisfy their needs and wants. Includes goods and services.
  2. Price – The amount of money consumers will pay for a product.
  3. Place – The way products are distributed and their systems of delivery. Includes how, when and where the product will be distributed, and where to purchase an item.
  4. Promotion – Any form of communication that a business or organization uses to inform, persuade, or remind people to buy its product.

Standard 3
Describe the 4 methods of market segmentation.

  1. Demographics – Personal characteristics such as age, gender, income, ethnic background, education, religion, occupation, and lifestyle.
  2. Geographic – Statistics about where people live. Could include region, city, county, and climate.
  3. Psychographics – Social and psychological characteristics such as attitudes, interests, and opinions.
  4. Behavioral – Analyzing customers with regard to sales generated, shopping patterns, as well as purchase decision-making processes such as brand loyalty, special occasion purchases, etc

Standard 4
Describe the seven marketing functions.

  1. Market Planning – Understanding concepts and strategies used to develop and target specific marketing strategies to a select audience.
  2. Marketing Information Management - The world of fashion is ever-changing. Gathering information is critical. Information is obtained primarily through marketing research, which helps fashion businesses determine their customers’ preferences & how-to better market products. Businesses are able to effectively use the information through marketing-information management systems. The five main elements are: input, storage, analysis, output, and decision making.
  3. Product/Service Management - Fashion businesses must develop, maintain, & improve their products in response to customer demands. Fashion producers lookfor new ways to use existing items or produce new ones that will continue to interest the consumer. For example: a current textile in apparel is spandex. Although this material has been in existence for years, its popularity increased when designers began using it for women’s & men’s active-wear fashions.
  4. Pricing - A primary goal of any business is to make a profit. A key factor in achieving this goal is to price a product accurately. Pricing includes how much to charge for goods & services in order to maximize profits. Although companies price their merchandise based on what the customer is willing to pay, they must be careful not to set prices so low that a business does not make a profit.
  5. Channel Management - Responsible for identifying, selecting, monitoring, and evaluating sales channels. Each channel of distribution is a path or route that goods and services take from the producer to the ultimate consumer or industrial user. These paths or routes aren’t physical, however. Instead, they refer to businesses or people who perform a variety of activities to enable products to be in the right places at the right times.
  6. Promotion - When new or existing products are developed, fashion marketers must promote their products to make sales. Promotion is the communication technique a business uses, such as advertising, and other promotional methods, to interest customers in buying the products. Manufacturers also promote their merchandise to retailers through catalog & Internet methods.
  7. Selling - The selling function involves the direct personal contact that businesses have with their customers. Developing good selling skills is especially important forselling more expensive apparel and designer fashions. Sales personnel must be able to communicate the benefits & features of the items so that customers are willing to pay higher prices.

Standard 5
Identify careers in the fashion merchandising industry.

  1. Advertising Director - Works for retail stores and publications and oversees the advertising and promotion activities.
  2. Public Relations Agent - Represents and promotes businesses and products within the fashion industry.

Performance Skills
Analyze a retail store based on market segmentation.

Strand 3
Students will demonstrate knowledge of the basics of the fashion movement and associated careers.

Standard 1
Define fashion movement terms.

  1. Fashion movement – The ongoing motion of fashions moving through the fashion cycle. Factors affecting the fashion movement – economic, social, introduction of new fibers and fabrics, and advertising techniques.
  2. Fashion leaders – Trendsetters, or individuals who are the first to wear new styles, after which the fashion is adopted by the general public.
  3. Fashion follower – wear fashions only when they become firmly accepted.
  4. Fashion lagger – Last to adopt new trends.

Standard 2
Review the stages of the fashion cycle.

  1. Introduction – Style is first seen.
  2. Rise – Style is purchased, worn and seen by many, fashion leaders.
  3. Peak – Style is at the height of popularity, copied by manufacturers, fashion followers.
  4. Decline – Style is undervalued, decrease in demand, fashion laggers.
  5. Obsolescence – Style is rejected in favor of new looks.

Standard 3
Describe the theories of fashion movement.

  1. Trickle down – Fashion starts at the top with consumers of higher socioeconomic status and moves down to the general public. People with lower incomes will only wear fashions that have become popular among consumers with higher incomes.
  2. Trickle up – Fashion starts with consumers on lower-income levels and then moves to consumers with higher incomes. Consumers on lower-income levels may also include younger consumers.
  3. Trickle across – Fashion acceptance begins among several socioeconomic classes at the same time. Fashion leaders in all groups.

Standard 4
Identify careers in the fashion merchandising industry.

  1. Fashion forecaster - predicts colors, fabrics, textures, materials, accessories and styles that will present for the upcoming seasons.

Performance Skills
Identify ten apparel pieces in their current location on the fashion cycle.

Strand 4
Students will discover key components of the fashion industry and associated careers.

Standard 1
Identify factors that contributed to the development of the apparel industry, Fashion defining events.

  1. Industrial revolution.
    • Development of the factory system of production – assembly line.
    • Mechanized textile mills – made fabrics of better quality in less time.
      • Flying shuttle, Spinning Jenny, Cotton Mill, Cotton Gin.
      • Sewing machine invented – factory manufacturing of clothing was introduced.
      • Apparel switched from handmade to ready-to-wear.
  2. Civil War – introduction of standardized sizes due to military uniforms.
  3. Global Capitalism.
    • More open interaction between governments allows free trade to occur worldwide.
    • Entrepreneur – person who starts his or her own business and who assumesthe risk and management of the enterprise.
    • Clothes were made faster, which dropped prices, so all were competitive in sales.
  4. Economics.
    • Techniques in mass distribution, advertising, and retail selling developed and refined.
    • Creation of retail outlets (department stores) – 19th century. Began in Europe. Permanently reshaped shopping habits.
    • Textile and apparel production is the largest industry in many nations, especially in developing countries. One of the largest employers in the US.
  5. Media -
    • Advertising and promotion of all types of apparel, from haute couture to every day low-priced garments. Items shown in ads, magazines, and on social media develop a need to purchase.
    • Introduction of movies, television, internet; constantly sped up introduction of new fashions to the public.

Standard 2
Identify key fashion centers in the U.S. and around the world Note: The emphasis in fashion merchandising is on the US centers, the world capitals are a review. (Fashion Design Studio)

  1. New York – Every major American fashion house is found here. New York designers include: Donna Karan, Vera Wang, Marc Jacobs, Michael Kors, Calvin Klein, and Ralph Lauren. New York’s Fashion District is the largest in the world. New York Fashion Week is held every February and September each year.
  2. Los Angeles – The West Coast Fashion Center is known for its casual lifestyle, laid back threads, and social media influencers. Big brand names based in LA are: JohnElliott + Co, Mother, Aviator Nation, d.RA, Apolis, Korovilas, Nasty Gal, Elder Statesman, and American Apparel.
  3. Miami – Known for its luxury boutiques, designer stores galore, and its international center of commerce. They showcase swimwear, international design, and resort wear. Famous designers that have called Miami home: Gianni Versace, Lazaro Hernandez, Proenza Schouler, and Alejandro Ingelmo. Miami holds 3 Fashion Weeks: Fashion Week Swim, Miami Beach International Fashion Week, and Funkshion Fashion Week.
  4. Las Vegas – a retail and tradeshows center. Known for MAGIC and POOL tradeshows. All giant fashion houses keep an eye these events.
  5. Chicago – Known for the Magnificent Mile (Michigan Avenue). Major stores include: Macy’s, Nordstrom, Barney’s, Bloomingdale’s, 900 North Michigan shops, and the Shops at North Bridge. Chicago does its own fashion show and has showcases for many major fashion events.
  6. Milan – Home to numerous fashion designers including: Armani, Versace, Prada, and Valentino. Milan Fashion Week held twice a year.
  7. Paris – First Fashion Capital. Haute couture was born in Paris. Some of the biggest names in the industry are headquartered in Paris. Such as: Chanel, Dior, Hermes,Vuitton, and Saint Laurent. Paris Fashion Week is the grand finale of the Big 4 (NewYork, London, and Milan.) The French dress to impress and invest in high quality fabrics. Only the French Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture can bestow upon a designer the title of couturier.
  8. London – London is known for its new, fresh, and creative designers. London Fashion Week and The Clothes Show London are the prominent fashion events. Famous fashion designers are: Vivienne Westwood, Alexander McQueen, Stella McCartney, Jimmy Choo, and Manolo Blahnik.
  9. Tokyo – Known for the significant consumption of luxury brands and for street fashion such as: Harajuku, Gyaru, Ganguro, Kogal, Visual Kei, and Mori Girl. Famous Tokyo Fashion Designers are Rei Kawabuko, Issey Miyake, and Yohji Yamamoto.

Standard 3
Identify and describe major trade publications, fashion magazines, internet sites and social media.

  1. Trade Publications – magazines, newspapers, and books that deal with a specific industry. (Women’s Wear Daily, Footwear News)
  2. Fashion Magazines – Consumer magazines sold commercially, featuring articles, illustrations, and advertisements all dealing with fashion. (Vogue, InStyle, Glamour)
  3. Internet Sites – easily accessible information, instant updates on the latest designs, access to designers.
  4. Social Media – may include online boutiques and Fashion Blogs.

Standard 4
Identify lasting, influential fashion designers, and their contributions.

  1. Giorgio Armani – Men’s Wear, most notably suits
  2. Coco Chanel – The Little Black Dress
  3. Christian Dior – The New Look
  4. Dolce and Gabbana – Romantic Styles
  5. Tom Ford – Classic simplistic menswear
  6. Guccio Gucci – leather goods
  7. Marc Jacobs – The Grunge Look
  8. Donna Karan – Simple Designs
  9. Rei Kawabuko – Vanguard deconstructed and pieces
  10. Calvin Klein – Jeans and underwear
  11. Karl Lagerfeld – Quality tailoring with bold ready-to-wear pieces
  12. Ralph Lauren – American Classic design
  13. Alexander McQueen – Elaborate fashion shows, known for bumsters
  14. Issey Miyake – Technology driven design
  15. Yves St Laurent – Women’s pants suits
  16. Levi Strauss – Rivets on Jeans
  17. Versace – Bold colors and designs
  18. Diane von Furstenberg – Wrap Dress
  19. Michael Kors – American sportswear and accessories for women
  20. Louis Vuitton – Bags (luggage)
  21. Vera Wang – Bridal wear
  22. Vivian Westwood – Queen of Punk
  23. Yohji Yamamoto – Avant garde tailoring, androgynous style

Standard 5
Identify careers in the fashion merchandising industry.

  1. Designer – designs clothing, etc.
  2. Fashion blogger – Uses social media, does not need to be an expert.
  3. Fashion journalist – Writes or edits articles or helps to formulate and style a fashion shoot.

Performance Skills
Prepare an oral or written report on a fashion designer, fashion publication, social media site, or fashion career that has influenced the fashion industry.

Strand 5
Student will analyze forms of fashion retail, promotion and associated careers.

Standard 1
Define types of fashion retailing.

  1. Department Stores – Retail establishments that carry different kinds of merchandise and house them in separate sections or departments.
  2. Flagship Stores – Original store that provides the operations direction and merchandise to its branch stores.
  3. Chain Stores – A group of stores owned and managed by a central office.
  4. Specialty Stores – Stores that handle only apparel or even only one specific type of apparel.
  5. Boutiques – Specialty store that offers a limited selection. Items tend to be more trendy.
  6. Designer Stores – Store that is owned and operated by a designer or and carries only its own lines.
  7. Manufacturer Stores – Store that is owned and operated by a manufacturer and carries only its own lines.
  8. Outlets – An off-price retailer that sells overruns or damaged items (seconds) from a prior season.
  9. Discount Stores – Sell clothing and other merchandise at lower prices, may be private or national brands.
  10. Mail Order Houses – Direct-mail marketing done by selling merchandise through the use of catalogs.
  11. Television Retailers – All products sold on special tv networks: HSN and QVC.
  12. E-Commerce – Services/products offered online for 24/7.

Standard 2
Demonstrate knowledge of fashion promotion.

  1. Advertising – A paid promotional message by an identified sponsor about its fashion products or ideas.
  2. Publicity – Includes non paid messages to the public about a company’s merchandise, activities, or services.
  3. Sales Promotion – Short-term incentives used to interest customers into buying products. Examples: Fashion shows, Special appearances, Contests, Premiums, Samples, Coupons, Email offers)
  4. Personal Selling – Requires direct interaction with the customer.
  5. Visual Merchandising – The integrated look of an entire store. The goal is to sell goods by promoting the store image and creating a positive shopping experience for the customer. Includes: Storefront, Store layout, Store interior, and Interior Displays

Standard 3
Demonstrate knowledge of business marketing strategies.

  1. Hang tags - detachable label that usually provides important information.
  2. Logos - recognized symbol or other design adopted by an organization.
  3. Slogans - short, memorable phrase.
  4. Trademarks - legally registered for use by a company or product.
  5. Copyright - exclusive legal right.

Standard 4
Identify careers in the fashion merchandising industry.

  1. Visual merchandiser - Develops floor plan and three-dimensional displays to maximize sales.
  2. Fashion buyer - selects and purchases clothes and accessories for retail.

Strand 6
Students will explore the main segments of the fashion industry and associated careers.

Standard 1
Classify the various markets in the fashion industry.

  1. Primary Market – Businesses that grow and produce the raw materials that becomes fashion apparel or accessories.
  2. Secondary Market – Businesses that transform the raw materials into fashion in the merchandise phase. The link to the retail world.
  3. Tertiary Market – Businesses that sell goods and services to the consumer.

Standard 2
Students will recognize categories in the retail market. Manufacturers have different divisions serving different customer needs based on age, outlook, body type and lifestyle.

  1. Men’s – designed for adult males. (8 common segments)
    • Tailored clothing – suits, sports coats, dress pants.
    • Furnishings – dress shirts, watches, bags, sunglasses, cuff links, jewelry, socks, underwear.
    • Sportswear – jeans, t-shirts, polo/golf shirts, khakis, button down shirt, sweaters.
    • Athletic wear – athletic attire, Popular brands: Nike, Adidas, Underarmour, etc.
    • Outerwear – coats and jackets.
    • Footwear
    • Sizing
      • Pants – by waist and inseam.
      • Jacket – by chest measurement.
      • Suit – by chest measurement. Drop is the difference between chest andwaist measurement – in US usually 6”
  2. Women’s – designed for adult females. Women’s for full figures, misses for average women petite for under 5’3” and plus for size 14 & over. (8 common segments)
    • Business – tailored, classic, dressy.
    • Sportswear – jeans, t-shirts, sweaters.
    • Bridal/formal wear – wedding & bridesmaid dresses, prom dresses, party attire.
    • Accessories – jewelry, handbags, hats.
    • Outerwear – jackets, coats, hoodies.
    • Athletic wear – exercise gear, swimsuits.
    • Foundation wear & lingerie – panties, bras, camis, negligees, pajamas.
    • Footwear
    • Sizing
      • Misses
      • Regular sizes in even numbers from sizes 2-14.
      • Women’s/Plus Size
        • Full figures size 14+
      • Petite
        • Designed for women under 5 feet 3 inches tall.
  3. Juniors
    • Designed for younger figures with odd-numbered sizes from 1-13.
  4. Children
    • Infants: Based on average heights and weights.
    • 0-3 to 24 Months
    • Toddlers: Clothes are made to go over a diaper or training pants.
    • 1T to 4T
    • Young children: It is best to go by the child’s height when determining size,not just age.
      • 2 to 6(x)

Standard 3
Identify careers in the fashion merchandising industry.

  1. Entrepreneur – Person who starts his or her own business and who assumes the risk and management of the enterprise.
  2. Wholesaler – person or firm that purchases large quantities of goods from various producers or vendors, warehouses them and resells to retailers.

Strand 7
Students will describe basic consumer finance options and associated careers.

Standard 1
Define POS (point-of-sale).

  1. The place at which goods are retailed. Could include a cash register or computer.

Standard 2
Identify the various payment options available to consumers (cash, credit, layaway, digital currency).

  1. Cash – Use money to pay for the full cost of what you buy.
  2. Credit – A promise to pay for goods and services in a certain specified way at a later date. Buy now, pay later. A credit purchase can be made with a specific store charge account or with a general credit card.
  3. Layaway – A store puts the item away for you for a certain length of time with a deposit toward buying it. The item must be paid in full before you can receive it.
  4. Digital Currency – exhibits properties of physical currency. Allows for instantaneous transactions and borderless transfer of ownership.

Standard 3
Define the credit terms.

  1. Credit Limit – Maximum financial amount a person may have outstanding on a charge or other credit account.
  2. Credit Rating – Evaluation of the financial standing of a person or business based on past records of debt repayment, and financial status.
  3. Revolving Charge Account – Credit account that may be paid in full or in monthly payments with added finance charges but may not exceed a total predetermined credit limit.
  4. Minimum Payment – The lowest amount you are required to pay on your credit card statement each month. Any unpaid balance is charged interest.

Standard 4
Identify careers in the fashion merchandising industry.

  1. Retail sales – assist the customer in a brick and mortar store to facilitate their purchase.
  2. Credit Manager – person employed by an organization to manage the credit department and make decisions concerning credit limits, acceptable levels of risk and terms of payment.

Performance Skills
Strand 5, 6, & 7
Create or analyze a promotion plan for a store or product.

  1. Description of store
  2. Objectives – what to accomplish
  3. Schedule of events – (special events, advertising, display, publicity, other)
  4. Responsibility sheet – assign positions – who does what
  5. Budget
  6. Statement of benefits to the retail establishment.

Strand 8
Students will develop professional and interpersonal skills needed for success in the fashion industry.

Standard 1
Determine the difference between hard skills and soft skills.

  1. Hard Skills - Hard skills are specific, teachable abilities that can be defined and measured.
  2. Soft Skills - Personal attributes that enable someone to interact effectively and harmoniously with other people.

Standard 2
Identify soft skills needed in the workplace.

  1. Professionalism
    • Appropriate dress and hygiene.
  2. Respect Legal requirements/expectations.
  3. Good communication skills.
    • Effective speaking & listening.
    • Writing
    • Appropriate language.
    • Demonstrating teamwork.
    • Acting as a team player, Learning from criticism.
    • Contributing to the success of a group.
  4. Resourcefulness & creativity.
    • Flexibility/adaptability
    • Contributing new ideas.
    • Critical thinking & problem solving.
    • Critical thinking.
    • Problem-solving skills.
    • Time task and resource.
    • Time management abilities.
    • Working well under pressure.
  5. Work Ethic
    • Integrity
    • Loyalty
    • Learning from criticism.
    • Initiative
    • Responsibility
    • Positive attitude
    • Strong work ethic
    • Positive attitude
    • Ability to accept and learn from criticism.

Standard 3
Identify hard skills needed in the workplace. Varies based on specific career.

Standard 4
Apply hire-ability skills needed to gain employment.

  1. The application
  2. The resume
  3. The cover letters
  4. The interview
  5. Follow-up & thank you’s

UEN logo - in partnership with Utah State Board of Education (USBE) and Utah System of Higher Education (USHE).  Send questions or comments to USBE Specialist - Kristina  Yamada and see the CTE/Arts, Audio/Visual Technology and Communication website. For general questions about Utah's Core Standards contact the Director - THALEA  LONGHURST.

These materials have been produced by and for the teachers of the State of Utah. Copies of these materials may be freely reproduced for teacher and classroom use. When distributing these materials, credit should be given to Utah State Board of Education. These materials may not be published, in whole or part, or in any other format, without the written permission of the Utah State Board of Education, 250 East 500 South, PO Box 144200, Salt Lake City, Utah 84114-4200.