Fashion Merchandising, Advanced
Printable Version (pdf)
The Fashion Merchandising, Advanced course is designed to provide fashion students knowledge of the various business functions in the fashion industry. The following list of skill Strands prepares the student in fashion merchandising with a working knowledge of promotion, textiles, merchandising math, selling, visual merchandising and career opportunities. Student leadership and competitive events (FCCLA and/or DECA) may be an integral part of the course. FCCLA and\ DECA related activities and curriculum can be used as an approved part of all Family and Consumer Sciences classes.
Core Standards of the Course
Students will differentiate between fashions in historical periods.
Recognize valid methods for identifying historic fashions.
Identify fashions from early time periods of clothing.
Egyptian – 3100 BCE to 30 BCE (before common era) - draped clothing made of linen.
Greek-1000 BCE to 1 ACE (after common era) - Homemade loose and flowing; chiton, himation.
Roman- 700 BCE to 410 ACE Mimicked the Greeks - a lighter weight fabric; toga, tunic.
Medieval - 449 to 1500 Layers, head coverings; corsets, kirtles.
Renaissance -1459 to 1500 Long gowns and doublets of velvets, brocades and linen tunics, hose for men.
Elizabethian/Tudor style 1509 to 1603 – Corset gowns, ruffled collars, slashing, codpieces.
Broque style- 1604 to 1682 – Softer collars, floppy brimmed hats, high waist and hose replaced with breeches.
Georgian Style 1714 to 1830 Powdered wigs, panniers, long tight breeches and high heels for men.
Regency 1811 to 1837 Light weight dresses, empire waist, Men’s clothing became practical for riding.
Victorian- 1837-1901 Women dresses were pale and simple. Men wore bold and bright colors.
Influential people in fashion history.
Elizabeth I: Queen of England 1558-1603
- Ruffs (large, round collar)
- Epaulets (Shoulder ornaments)
- Jeweled wigs
- Plucked forehead and brows
- Hoop Skirt (Farthingale)
Louis XIV: King of France 1643-1715
- High heels for men, En suite entire matching outfit
- He sent dolls to every European court, so they would know about Paris fashions.
Marie Antoinette: Queen of France 1775-1793
- Used paste to whiten and stiffen her hair to extreme heights.
- Excessive fashion
- Panniers – side hoops
George Bryan “Beau” Brummel
- Led trends for men in the early1800’s
- His style is known as “Dandyism” (a style of dress and a lifestyle that celebrated elegance and refinement in the 1800’s)
- Included: Straight posture, well-fitting clothes, top hat, tailcoat, and white gloves.
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
- America’s First Lady in the early 1960’s
- Famous for: Pillbox hats and ¾ length sleeve suits
- Trendsetting British rock band
- Early ’60s - “Mop-top” hairstyles, skinny suits, Cuban heels.
- Later’60s - “Sargent Pepper” jackets in psychedelic colors.
Review specific styles in the 20th century.
1890’s – Victorian Era.
- Women – Gibson Girl (ideal American woman), corset, bustle, hourglass silhouette.
- Men – matching coat and vest with contrasting trousers. Rectangle silhouette.
1900’s – Industrial Revolution Era. Duster coat
- Women – pigeon breast shirtwaist, Leg O’ Mutton sleeves, s- curve silhouette.
- Men – formal morning dress with top hats, or 3-piece ‘lounge’ suits with bowler hats. Rectangle silhouette
1910’s – WWI Era.
- Women – Hobble skirt, bathing suit, bloomers, inverted triangle silhouette.
- Men – military influence/trench coats. Rectangle silhouette
1920’s – “Roaring ‘20’s” Era.
- Women – Flapper, costume jewelry, cloche’ hat, dropped waistline, rectangle silhouette.
- Men – trousers creased with wider hemlines, introduction of the modern two-piece suit, zoot suit, wingtips. Hourglass silhouette.
1930’s – Depression Era.
- Women – bias cut dresses, waistline restored, hemlines dropped, hand-me-downs, flour sack clothing, Hollywood glamour, slight hourglass silhouette.
- Men – introduction of the double-breasted suit, padded shoulders, glen plaid fabric. Inverted triangle silhouette.
1940s – WWII Era.
- Women – Convertible suit (mix and match pieces), slacks, no silk or nylon stockings, inverted triangle silhouette.
- Men – Military influence/bomber jacket, austere “Victory’ suits with no vest, cuff or pocket flaps. Rectangle silhouette.
1950s – Rock n’ Roll era. Teenagers become their own class and have money to spend.
- Women – Poodle skirts, saddle shoes, Capri pants, the “New Look “(ChristianDior), hourglass silhouette.
- Men – dark flannel suits, the ‘Ivy League’ look – khaki slacks, button down shirt, sweater. Rectangle silhouette.
1960s – Civil rights Era. The ‘Mod’ look.
- Women – Miniskirts, pantsuits, Chanel suit, pillbox hat, rectangle silhouette.
- Men – tailored suits, turtlenecks, bold. Rectangle silhouette
1970s – Hippy to Disco Era. Unisex.
- Men and Women both wore bold flower prints, platform shoes, bellbottoms, wide ties and collars. triangle silhouette.
1980s – Yuppie Era. Logo wear, designer jeans.
- Women – exercise wear as everyday clothes, bold bright colors, inverted triangle silhouette.
- Men – business suits with narrow detailing, suspenders, pastels. rectangle silhouette.
1990s – The Dot Com Era. rejection of fashion, grunge.
- Women – Bare midriff, rectangle silhouette.
- Men – baggy pants, big sneakers. rectangle silhouette
2000s – Wired generation.
- Both men and women wore Skinny jeans, embellishments, hip-hop style.
2010s – Social media Rise of androgyny.
- Both men and women wear Leggings, jeggings, cutouts, hipster-style. (look at what you’re wearing today, what will people remember?)
Students will define Fashion Products and Research terms.
Define fashion products and research terms.
rag trade - the slang term for the garment industry.
product mix - the total selection of goods and services that a company makes or sells.
product assortment - the range of items or merchandise within categories that a company sells. Ex of category: Dresses
merchandise information system - a system that produces, stores, and analyzes information that enables fashion marketers to make decisions about merchandise for sale.
market research - the systematic gathering, recording, analyzing, and presentation of information related to marketing goods and services.
survey method - a research method that involves gathering information from people through surveys or questionnaires.
observation method - a research method that involves watching people and recording consumer behavior by cameras, individuals, or internet tracking for example through cookies.
experimental method - a research method whereby a researcher observes the results of changing one or more marketing variables while keeping other variables constant.
focus group - a panel of six to ten consumers who discuss opinions about a topic under the guidance of a moderator.
Market segmentation - dividing the total market into smaller groups and analyzing each group by specific characteristics.
Target Marketing - the specialized niche of the market to whom the company wishes to make the greatest appeal.
Target-Market Research - ongoing process used to gather and analyze information that relates to specific groups of customers or target market.
Decide on a potential target market for a fictitious store and create a survey consisting of 10 questions to find potential interest in that store.
Create an actual display using fashion items OR create a miniature window display in a box.
Students will explore entrepreneurial options in the fashion industry.
Students will explore the sequence of steps in establishing a business plan.
- Description of the business and its goals.
- Ownership of the business and its legal structure.
- List the skills and experience you bring to the business.
- Advantages you and your business have over competitors.
- Products and services your company will offer.
- Customer demand for your products and services.
- Identify your market, its size and locations.
- Explain how your products and services will be advertised and marketed.
- Pricing strategy.
Finance & Management
- Expected return on investment and monthly cash flow for the first year.
- Projected income statements.
- Discuss your break-even point.
- Day-to-day operations.
- Hiring and personnel procedures.
- Insurance, lease or rent agreements.
- Equipment necessary to produce your goods or services.
- Production and delivery of products and services.
- Summarize your business goals and objectives and express your commitment to the success of your business. Once you have completed your business plan, review it with a friend or business associate and professional business counselor
- Remember the business plan is a flexible document that should change as your business grows.
Analyze how to price a product for sell.
Material Costs - the amount of money you spend on raw materials needed to createa product.
Labor Costs - the number of hours required to make your product and the hourly rate associated with those hours.
Overhead Costs - any further expenses required for the operation of your business. (equipment, utilities, rent, insurance, taxes)
Students will be able to explain the basics of the 4P’s of marketing.
Product - Any goods, services, or ideas that we wish to sell.
Place – Distributing the right product to the right place at the right time in the right amount and in the right condition.
Price - Determining a dollar amount at which we can sell the product.
Promotion - Making potential customers aware of a product in a positive way so they will want to buy it.
Understand the basics for using credit for business financing.
Interest rate - The proportion of a loan that is charged as interest to the borrower, typically express as an annual percentage of the loan outstanding.
Personal guarantee - Individual agrees to be responsible for the financial obligations of a debtor or borrower to a lender, if the debtor or borrower fails to pay an amount owing under the loan agreement.
Loan term - Monetary loan that is repaid in regular payments over a set period of time. Term loans usually last between one and ten years but may last as long as 30 years in some cases. A term loan usually involves an unfixed interest rate that willadd additional balance to be repaid.
Ability to repay - An economic principle stating that the amount of tax an individual’s pay should be dependent on the level of burden the tax will create relative to the wealth of the individual.
Students will apply knowledge of merchandising to market a fashion product.
Some examples could include:
Social media selling
Students will develop professional and interpersonal skills needed for success in the fashion industry. Incorporated throughout the course.
Determine the difference between hard skills and soft skills.
Hard Skills - Hard skills are specific, teachable abilities that can be defined and measured.
Soft Skills - Personal attributes that enable someone to interact effectively and harmoniously with other people.
Identify soft skills needed in the workplace.
- Appropriate dress and hygiene
- Legal requirements/expectations
Good communication skills.
- Effective speaking & listening
- Appropriate language
- Acting as a team player
- Learning from criticism
Contribute to the success of a group.
Resourcefulness & creativity
- Contributing new ideas
Critical thinking & problem solving
Time task and resource skills
- Time management abilities
- Working well under pressure
- Learning from criticism
- Positive attitude
http://www.uen.org - in partnership with Utah State Board of Education
(USBE) and Utah System of Higher Education
(USHE). Send questions or comments to USBE
and see the CTE/Arts, Audio/Visual Technology and Communication website. For
general questions about Utah's Core Standards contact the Director
These materials have been produced by and for the teachers of the
State of Utah. Copies of these materials may be freely reproduced
for teacher and classroom use. When distributing these materials,
credit should be given to Utah State Board of Education. These
materials may not be published, in whole or part, or in any other
format, without the written permission of the Utah State Board of
Education, 250 East 500 South, PO Box 144200, Salt Lake City, Utah