Food And Nutrition I
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This course is designed to focus on the science of food and nutrition.
Experiences will include food safety and sanitation, culinary technology,
food preparation and dietary analysis to develop a healthy lifestyle with
pathways to career readiness. Laboratory-based experiences strengthen
comprehension of concepts and standards outlined in Sciences,
Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) education. Student leadership
and competitive events (FCCLA) may be integrated into this course.
(Standards 1-6 will be covered on Skill Certification Test #340.)
Core Standards of the Course
Students will consistently demonstrate kitchen safety procedures and sanitation techniques.
Apply established safety rules and guidelines to maintain a safe working environment.
Identify safety practices for using electric appliances.
- With electrical appliances, use dry hands, stand on dry floor and keep away from water.
- Plug cord into electrical appliance before plugging into power source.
Explain how to extinguish a grease fire.
- To extinguish a grease fire, use a lid on the pan and apply baking soda/salt or fire extinguisher.
- Avoid using water or flour.
Identify proper storage of cleaning chemicals.
- Cleaning supplies should be stored away from foods.
- Keep cleaning supplies in original containers.
Explain electrical safety, lifting techniques, and prevention of burns, cuts, fires, and falls.
- Dull knives are more dangerous and less efficient than sharp knives.
- Keep clothing away from direct heat.
- Avoid plastic on or near the range.
- Turn handles away from the front of the range.
- Clean up spills immediately to avoid falls.
- Lift lids on hot foods away from you.
- Use hot pads or oven mitts for handling hot baking pans.
- Store heavy items on lower shelves.
- Use a step stool for reaching high objects.
Identify proper first-aid procedures for cuts, burns, and electrical shock. STEM (Biology/Science)
Identify ways to prevent poisoning and chemical contamination.
- Keep cleaning supplies away from food.
- Mixing chlorine with any product containing ammonia will create toxic deadly fumes.
Identify basic first-aid for cuts and burns.
- First aid for severely bleeding cut: apply direct pressure over wound.
- First aid for a first degree burn: place burned area under cold running water.
Identify proper first-aid procedures for electrical shock.
- Avoid any contact between water and electricity, use dry hands to disconnect appliances before cleaning and disconnect the main power source before approaching injured person.
Identify health and hygiene requirements for food handling. STEM (Science)
Identify proper handwashing and know when a double hand-wash is required.
- Wash hands with soap and warm water for a minimum of twenty seconds.
- Wash hands before/after handling raw meat, poultry or eggs.
Describe proper personal hygiene practices.
- Wash hands after using restroom, sneezing, coughing, changing diapers, etc.
Identify appropriate clothing and hair restraints.
- Appropriate clothing includes clean clothing and apron.
- Cover or tie back hair with appropriate hair restraints before working with food.
Identify and apply sanitation rules and guidelines. STEM (Science)
Identify proper dishwashing techniques.
- Describe the three-sink method of cleaning and sanitizing pots and pans and how to correctly dry dishes.
- Describe the correct procedure for cleaning and sanitizing using a dishwashing machine.
- Dish washing order (by hand): rinse and scrape first, glassware before silverware, plates and bowls, pots and pans last.
Discuss cleaning and sanitizing of work surfaces.
- Keep all work surfaces clean.
- Disinfect work surfaces to prevent cross-contamination.
- When tasting foods, always use a clean spoon and use only once.
- To reduce pest/insects, avoid crumbs or spills, keep staples in airtight containers and dispose of garbage properly.
Discuss cleaning chemicals and how to use them safely on food contact surfaces.
- Always use cleaners and sanitizers according to manufacturer's directions.
- Clean, rinse, and sanitize the surface, then allow the surface to air dry.
Discuss appropriate use of utensils and gloves to avoid bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat foods.
- Wear gloves if you have a cut or open sores on hands.
Describe the correct procedures for storing dishes and utensils.
- Utensils and equipment should be stored in ways that prevent contamination.
- Store utensils and equipment that touches food at least six inches off the floor.
- Store glasses and cups upside down on a clean, sanitized surface, and store utensils with handles up.
Describe the correct procedures to handle trash and garbage.
- Garbage can contaminate food and equipment if it isn't handled safely. Remove garbage from prep areas as quickly as possible.
- Do not clean garbage containers near food prep or food storage areas. Clean the inside and outside of garbage cans often.
- Close the lids on outdoor containers.
Identify methods of preventing food-borne illnesses and contamination. STEM (Biology/Science)
Define the characteristics of a food-borne illness.
- Food-borne illness results from eating contaminated foods containing poisonous toxins.
- Fever, headache and digestive troubles are symptoms of food-borne illness.
- Contaminated food will often look and smell normal. It may not always have off-odors or off-flavors.
- When in doubt, throw it out.
- List sources of microbes. A microbe is anything too small to be visible to the naked eye. Three types of microbes found in food are bacteria, viruses and fungi (yeast and mold). Foods like milk/dairy, meat, fish, eggs, poultry, shellfish/crustaceans, baked potatoes, tofu, sprouts, cooked rice, beans and vegetables, sliced melons or tomatoes and lettuce are susceptible to bacterial growth.
Identify types of food-borne illness, their symptoms and common sources of contamination:
- Associated with improperly canned foods, specifically low-acid foods.
- Bacteria spread by air from soil, ground and fecal matter to food sources; usually found in undercooked ground beef, unpasteurized milk, fruit juices, fresh fruits and vegetables. E-coli will be killed by cooking or heating to a high enough temperature.
- Hepatitis A
- Virus from fecal matter transferred by human contact, usually through improper handwashing.
- Bacteria often found in raw poultry and eggs.
- Bacteria spread through human mucous contact to food sources.
- Associated with raw produce, contaminated water, and foods that are not reheated after contact with an infected handler.
- Clostridium Perfringens
- Associated with meats, poultry, gravy, dried or precooked foods, time/temperature-abused foods.
- Campylobacter SSP
- Usually found in raw and undercooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, and contaminated water.
Identify population groups that are most vulnerable to food-borne illness.
- Population groups most vulnerable to food borne illness include young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with immune systems weakened by disease or medical treatment- YOPIs (young, old, pregnant, and immune-compromised).
Identify how to prevent food-borne illness contamination through burns, cuts or other wounds.
- Wash hands before putting on gloves and when changing to a new pair of gloves.
- Only use single-use gloves when handling food. Gloves should fit your hand.
- Change gloves when they get dirty or torn, before beginning a new task, or after handling raw meat, seafood, and poultry.
- Wear bandages over wounds and use a water-proof finger-cover over bandages and under gloves.
Define cross contamination and explain prevention techniques.
- A large majority of food-borne illnesses can be prevented by practicing proper hand washing.
- Throw away any food with an off odor and do not taste or use.
- Do not buy or use bulging cans.
- Frequently clean and sanitize work surfaces.
- Ways to avoid cross contamination:
- Never place cooked food on a plate which has previously held raw meat, poultry or seafood.
- Always wash hands, cutting boards, etc. with hot soapy water after they come in contact with raw meat, poultry or seafood.
Identify proper temperatures:
- Temperature Danger Zone is 41-135 degrees
- Describe the relationship between cooking time and temperature in killing microorganisms.
- Foods should not be in the Temperature Danger Zone for more than two hours.
- Foods held in the danger zone for longer than four hours should be thrown out. (Restaurants get four hours since food is delivered in a refrigerated truck and moved directly to the refrigerator in the restaurant. For home use the rule is two hours.)
- Discuss proper date and time marking for foods.
- List appropriate temperatures for refrigerators, freezers and steam tables.
- Proper temperature for heating, reheating and serving foods is 165 degrees.
- Proper temperature for cold storage of foods is 40 degrees or below.
- Discuss steps used to cool food rapidly
- Keep freezer temperature at 0 degrees fahrenheit to keep foods frozen solid.
- Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold.
- Internal food temperatures (always use a thermometer to check):
- Seafood, beef, veal, lamb, pork: at least 145 degrees
- Ground meats (pork, beef, veal, lamb): 155 degrees
- All poultry (whole or ground): 165 degrees
Explain how to correctly thaw foods.
- Place in the refrigerator for 2-3 days. This is the safest method.
- Place in a sink of cold, running water or a sink full of cold water, changing the water every 30 minutes. Use food immediately.
- In the microwave, if using the food immediately.
- Never defrost frozen foods at room temperature.
Define Temperature Controls for Safety (TCS)
- Identify foods that require time or temperature controls for safety (TCS).
Identify potential hazardous foods and the dangers of leaving them at room temperature.
- Any type of food can be contaminated, but some types allow more microbe/pathogen growth.
- The best way to control pathogen growth in these items is to control time and temperature.
- Foods like milk/dairy, meat, fish, eggs, poultry, shellfish/crustaceans, baked potatoes, tofu, sprouts, cooked rice, beans and vegetables, sliced melons or tomatoes and lettuce are susceptible to bacterial growth.
Performance Objective 2
Consistently demonstrate preventative practices related to kitchen safety and sanitation procedures.
Performance Objective 3
Students will complete food and kitchen safety training comparable to that required for the ServSafe Food Handlers Certificate with the option to acquire a Food Handers Permit from your county Health Department through the Utah Restaurant Association.
Students will apply the skills of kitchen equipment and management.
Identify types, use and care of selected kitchen equipment. STEM (Technology)
Identify various types of kitchen equipment.
- bread knife
- chef's knife
- cutting board
- meat thermometer
- oven thermometer
- pancake turner
- paring knife
- pastry blender
- rolling pin
- rubber scraper
- slotted spoon
- straight edge spatula
- vegetable peeler
- wire whisk
- wooden spoon
Select appropriate equipment for specific product preparation.
- Pastry blender for cutting fat into flour
- Straight-edge spatula for leveling off or spreading frosting
- Wooden spoon for cooking on top of the stove
- Wire whisk for blending liquids.
Demonstrate the proper use and care of equipment.
Demonstrate basic knife skills, including safety and proper handling.
- Use caution with sharp objects such as knives and blender blades.
Employ standard safety procedures when using equipment.
Identify the basic principles of cooking in a microwave.
- Microwaves are attracted to fat, sugar and water molecules.
- Microwaves cause molecules to vibrate; vibration creates friction, which produces the heat that cooks the food.
- Appropriate and safe cooking containers include microwave safe plastic, glass and paper, but not metal. Shallow, round containers cook more evenly than square containers.
- Standing time is the time food continues to cook after the microwave has stopped. Quantity/volume of food in the microwave increases cooking and standing time.
- Stir and rotate foods for even cooking.
- Covering foods holds in the moisture and helps foods to cook more evenly and prevent splattering. Cover with plastic wrap, paper towel, wax paper or lid.
- Microwave cooking does not brown foods or give a crisp crust.
- To prevent burns, use pot holders and direct steam away from body.
Identify abbreviations and food measurement terminology, and demonstrate proper measuring techniques. STEM (Math)
- Tablespoon = T., Tbs., Tbsp. or tbsp.
- Teaspoon = t. or tsp.
- Gallon = gal.
- Quart = qt.
- Pint = pt.
- Cup = c.
- Pound = lb. or #
- Ounce = oz.
- Hour = hr.
- Minute = min.
Identify measuring techniques and tools.
- Use dry measuring cups for dry ingredients and level with a straight edge spatula.
- Use liquid measuring cups for liquid ingredients. Measure at eye level on a flat, level surface.
- Brown sugar is packed and leveled in dry measuring cups.
- Shortening is pressed into dry measuring cups and leveled; or use water displacement method.
- Use most effective tools for measuring. For example: use 1/4 cup rather than 4 Tbsp.
- Use measuring spoons for ingredients less than 1/4 cup.
- Do not measure directly over the mixing bowl.
Integrate mathematic concepts through equivalents, recipe adjustments and conversions. STEM (Math)
- 3 t. = 1 T.
- 4 T. = 1/4 c.
- 16 T. = 1 c.
- 4 qt. = 1 gal.
- 16 c. = 1 gal.
- 8 fl. oz. = 1 c.
- 2 c. = 1 pt.
- 1 stick butter = 1/2 c.
- 16 oz. = 1 lb.
Double and cut recipe size in half.
- Know that, when cutting a recipe in half or doubling a recipe, the cooking temperature will remain the same while the amount of ingredients, length of cooking time, and size of pan will be affected.
- Use appropriate math principles for increasing/decreasing fractions.
Analyze, prepare and complete a recipe.
Explain basic food-preparation terminology.
Define the following cooking terms: chop, cream, cut-in, dice, dredge, flour, foldin, grate, knead, mince, peel, sauté, simmer, steam and whip.
- Chop: to cut into small pieces
- Cream: to work sugar and fat together until the mixture is soft and fluffy
- Cut-in: to cut fat into flour with a pastry blender or two knives
- Dice: to cut into very small cubes
- Dredge: to coat food heavily with flour, breadcrumbs or cornmeal
- Flour: to sprinkle or coat with a powdered substance, often with crumbs of seasonings
- Fold-in: to mix ingredients by gently turning one part over another
- Grate: to finely divide food in various sizes by rubbing it on surface with sharp projections
- Knead: to work dough to further mix the ingredients and develop the gluten
- Mince: to cut or chop food as finely as possible
- Peel: to remove or strip off the skin or rind of some fruits and vegetables
- Saute: to brown or cook foods with a small amount of fat using low to medium heat
- Simmer: to cook just below the boiling point
- Steam: to cook by the vapor produced when water is heated to the boiling point
- Whip: to beat rapidly to introduce air bubbles into food
Performance Objective 4
Consistently demonstrate proper measuring and preparation techniques while preparing a recipe.
Students will identify the sources and functions of carbohydrates and fiber and apply appropriate food preparation techniques.
Identify carbohydrates, their sources, and functions and the importance of whole grains in the body. STEM (Math)
Define simple carbohydrates (sugars), complex carbohydrates (starches) and fiber.
- Simple carbohydrates are also called sugars.
- Complex carbohydrates are also called starches.
- Fiber is a form of a complex carbohydrate.
Identify and calculate the caloric content of carbohydrates (4 calories per gram) and the functions and food sources for simple and complex carbohydrates.
- The primary function of carbohydrates is to provide energy.
- Carbohydrates provide 4 calories per gram.
- Good sources of complex carbohydrates include whole grains, cereal products, dried beans, rice and pasta.
- Carbohydrates include sucrose (table sugar), fructose (fruit sugar), lactose (milk sugar), maltose (malt sugar) and glucose (blood sugar).
- The parts of the wheat kernel and the nutrients provided are:
- Endosperm (starch, protein).
- Germ (unsaturated fatty acids, "B" Vitamins, Vitamin E, iron, zinc, other trace minerals)
- Bran (fiber, vitamins, minerals).
Describe how complex carbohydrates break down into simple sugars in the digestion process.
Identify fiber, its sources and functions. STEM (Biology)
Identify the functions and food sources of fiber.
- Fiber, also known as roughage or cellulose, attracts water to our intestines and moves food through the intestines faster.
- Fiber helps to keep bowel movements soft in form and reduces problems related to constipation.
Identify cellulose/non-digestible fiber.
Discuss the importance of liquids in the role of bowel function.
- Drink plenty of liquids - otherwise fiber can slow down or even block normal bowel function.
Discuss why the National Cancer Institute recommends 20-35 grams of daily fiber.
- Fiber may reduce the risks of diverticulosis, colon and rectal cancer.
Identify foods high in natural fiber, and how to increase the bulk in low-fiber foods.
- Foods high in fiber: fruits and vegetables (especially the skins or peels), whole grains, legumes, bran cereals, dry beans, nuts, split peas and lentils.
Apply food selection and preparation guidelines related to quick breads, rice, grains, and pasta. STEM (Math/Science)
Identify examples of quick breads: muffins, pancakes, waffles, biscuits, cornbread and nut/fruit bread.
- Quick breads do not use yeast for leavening.
Identify basic mixing techniques for quick breads.
- Under-mixing cause quick breads to be crumbly, dry and have very few tunnels.
- Over-mixing causes quick breads to be tough and to have tunnels.
Identify the role of each ingredient of quick breads and its role:
- Flour: provides structure and is the main ingredient.
- Liquid: provides moisture.
- Leavening agents: make the quick bread rise. (examples: baking powder, baking soda, eggs, steam)
- Fat: provides tenderness, richness and some flavor.
- Salt: provides flavor.
- Sugar: provide flavor and browning.
Identify types of rice (brown, instant, long grain and short grain), cooking methods for rice and the ratio of uncooked to cooked rice.
Identify cooking methods for pasta and the ratio of uncooked to cooked pasta.
- Pasta dishes are usually low-cost entrees.
- Store dry pasta in a tightly covered container at room temperature. Fresh or cooked pasta should be stored in a closed container in the refrigerator.
- Pasta Cooking Method:
- Bring water to a boil.
- Slowly add pasta so the boiling does not stop.
- Cook uncovered until pasta is al dente (firm to the tooth), stirring occasionally.
- One cup of uncooked pasta makes two cups of cooked pasta. (Ratio is 1:2).
Performance Objective 5
Actively participate in the preparation of a complex carbohydrate food from scratch. Compare the nutritional content and cost of a comparable convenience food vs. the complex carbohydrate food from scratch.
Students will identify the sources and functions of proteins and lipids (fats and oils) and apply appropriate food preparation techniques.
Identify proteins (complete, incomplete and complementary), their sources and functions in the body. STEM (Math/Science)
Identify and calculate the caloric content of protein (4 calories per gram) and its function in the body.
- The primary function of protein is to build and repair body tissues.
- Protein provides 4 calories per gram.
- Keep meat and poultry portions small and lean.
- Include at least 8 oz. of cooked seafood per week.
Define amino acids, complete, incomplete and complementary proteins.
- Amino acids are the building blocks of protein.
- There are 22 amino acids. 9 are considered essential. The body cannot manufacture essential amino acids, so they must be obtained from food.
- Complete proteins contain all 9 of the essential amino acids in the right ratio for our body to use.
- Incomplete proteins contain some, but not all, of the amino acids.
Identify food examples of complete, incomplete and complementary proteins.
- Animal foods source such as meat, chicken, fish and milk products contain complete protein.
- Soy foods such as tofu, tempeh, soy nuts and edamame also contain complete protein.
- Quinoa is considered a complete protein, but is not as high in protein as animal sources or soy (and so is not included as a protein food in MyPlate).
- Incomplete proteins are from other plant sources: grains, dried beans, nuts and seeds.
- Incomplete proteins can be combined to create a complementary protein. For example: beans with rice; peanut butter with whole wheat bread.
- Complementary proteins are a grain combined with any nut, seed or legume.
Apply food selection and preparation guidelines related to egg product. STEM (Science)
Identify functions of eggs: binder, thickener, coating, leavening agent, and emulsifier.
- Functions of eggs:
- Binder (meatloaf)
- Thickener (pudding)
- Coating (breading on chicken)
- Leavening agent (angel food cake)
- Emulsifier (mayonnaise)
Identify egg cooking temperatures and techniques/methods.
- Methods of cooking eggs: hard cooked, soft cooked, scrambled, fried, and poached.
- Eggs are toughened by heat or by long exposure to heat.
Identify appropriate storage of eggs.
- Store eggs in the original container in the refrigerator. When properly stored in the refrigerator, eggs may be stored for several weeks.
Apply food selections and preparation guidelines related to milk and milk products. STEM (Science/Biology)
Identify serving sizes and amounts for milk and dairy products.
- Three cups from the milk group per day are recommended for teens and adults.
- Eat calcium rich foods in the Dairy Group. Switch to fat free or low fat milk.
Discuss methods of cooking with milk. Define pasteurization, homogenization and fortified milk.
- Milk products scorch easily and need to be cooked at a low temperature with constant stirring.
- Heating milk in the microwave prevents scorching.
- Pasteurized milk has been heat treated to remove harmful bacteria.
- Homogenized milk has had the fat particles broken down and evenly distributed so the fat will not separate from the milk.
- Milk is fortified with vitamins A and D.
Discuss raw (unpasteurized) milk and milk replacements and how they compare nutritionally.
- Most of the nutritional benefits of drinking raw milk are available from pasteurized milk without the risk of disease that comes with drinking raw milk.
- Raw milk made into other products like soft cheese, ice cream, and yogurt, can still cause dangerous illnesses. When consuming these products, make sure they are made from pasteurized milk. Raw, unpasteurized milk can carry dangerous bacteria such as salmonella, E. coli, campylobacter, and listeria, which are responsible for causing numerous food-borne illnesses.
- Milk replacements such as almond milk, soy milk, or rice milk are comparable with milk in regards to nutritional value and are a viable substitute for people with special dietary needs.
Identify methods of lowering fat in recipes by using lower fat content milk or milk products.
- Reduce fat in recipes by using a lower fat content milk. For example: substitute yogurt for mayonnaise or sour cream, substitute fat-free (skim) or low-fat (1%) milk for whole milk.
Identify lipids (fats and oils), their sources, functions and related health concerns. STEM (Math/Science/Biology)
Identify the functions of fats:
- Carrier for vitamins A, D, E, and K.
- Reserve supply of energy.
- Adds flavor in food.
- Protects internal organs from shock and injury.
- Insulates the body from shock and temperature changes.
- Promotes healthy skin.
- Satisfies hunger and helps you feel full longer.
Explain the role of cholesterol, including HDL and LDL factors. (High levels of LDL cholesterol is one factor related to heart disease and obesity.)
- Cholesterol is essential for many body processes. Cholesterol produces hormones and bile acids. It is found in animal tissues, but is never present in plants.
- The body has High Density Lipoprotein-(HDL) cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein-(LDL).
- HDL cholesterol is considered "good" cholesterol because it transports excess cholesterol found in the blood stream back to the liver. LDL's take cholesterol from the liver to wherever it is needed in the body. LDL cholesterol is considered "bad" cholesterol because if too much LDL cholesterol is circulating in the blood stream, it can build up in the arties and increase the chance of heart disease or stroke.
- High levels of LDL cholesterol is one factor related to heart disease and obesity.
Identify the differences between saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fats and trans-fatty acids. Discuss the effect of each type of fat on HDL and LDL levels.
- Most solid fats are high in saturated fats and are solid at room temperature.
- Saturated fats raise the LDL and HDL levels of cholesterol in the blood. Examples of saturated fats include meat, poultry skin, whole milk, tropical oils, butter, shortening and lard.
- Polyunsaturated fats lower both the LDL and HDL cholesterol levels in the blood. Examples of polyunsaturated fats include corn oil, soybean oil and safflower oil.
- Monounsaturated fats lower LDL and raise HDL levels of cholesterol in the blood. Examples of monounsaturated fats include olive oil, olives, avocados, peanuts and canola oil.
Identify and calculate the caloric content of lipids (9 calories per gram) and methods of lowering lipid content of prepared foods.
- Fats provide 9 calories per gram. It is the most concentrated source of energy.
- Choose lean meats and lower fat dairy products.
- Replace solid fats with oils.
- Oils are not a food group, but they help deliver essential nutrients.
Performance Objective 6
Actively participate in the preparation of a complete and/or complimentary protein food from scratch. Compare the nutritional content and cost of a comparable convenience food vs. the complete and / or complimentary food from scratch.
Performance Objective 7
Actively participate in the preparation of a low-fat food. Compare the nutritional content and cost of a comparable high-fat food vs. the low-fat food.
Students will identify the sources and functions of select vitamins, minerals and water and apply appropriate food preparation techniques to foods high in these nutrients.
Identify select vitamins, their food sources, functions, and deficiencies in the body. STEM (Math/Science/Biology)
Identify select water-soluble vitamins (i.e., vitamin C, folate).
- Identify sources, functions and deficiency of vitamin C.
- Vitamin C helps to form collagen, which holds the cells together, and aids in healing. It also prevents scurvy.
- Identify sources, functions and deficiency of folate including the role of folate in preventing neural tube birth disorders like spina bifida.
- Folate (folacin/folic acid) is one of the B vitamins. Folate helps prevent neural tube birth disorders such as spina bifida. Neural tube damage occurs during the first weeks of pregnancy, before a woman may realize she is pregnant. Meeting the folate requirement before becoming pregnant is essential for prevention.
Identify fat-soluble vitamins (Vitamins A, D, E and K):
- Identify sources, functions and deficiencies of vitamins A, D, E, and K.
- Vitamin A: Enhances hair, skin and helps prevent night blindness. Sources: Red, orange and dark green vegetables.
- Vitamin D: Manufactured by the body with exposure to sunlight. Works with the body to build and maintain healthy bones and teeth; usually added to milk products. It is also called the "sunshine vitamin".
- Vitamin E: Protects membranes of white and red blood cells.
- Vitamin K: Helps blood to clot.
- Describe how to identify amounts of Vitamin D in foods using food labels.
Identify select minerals, their food sources, functions and deficiencies in the body. STEM (Math/Science/Biology)
Identify sources, functions and deficiency of the macro mineral calcium, including the role of calcium in preventing osteoporosis.
- Most minerals help build strong bones and teeth. Others are used to make substances that the body needs.
- Minerals are usually needed in tiny amounts, but are critical to health.
- Macro minerals are needed in great quantities in the body.
- Calcium deficiency causes osteoporosis which causes bones to gradually lose their minerals. This causes bones to become weak and frail. Dairy products are good sources of calcium.
Identify sources, functions and effects of deficiency of the trace mineral iron, including the role of iron in preventing anemia. Describe how to identify amounts of iron in foods using food labels.
- Trace / micro minerals are needed in smaller quantities, but are just as essential as macro minerals. Iron deficiency causes anemia, or low red blood cell formation. Animal products provide excellent sources of iron.
Identify sources, functions and deficiencies of the electrolytes sodium and potassium, including their role in fluid balance. Describe how to identify amounts of sodium and potassium in foods using food labels.
- Electrolytes help maintain the fluid balance in the body, help maintain the heartbeat and help muscle and nerve action.
- Electrolytes easily become imbalanced in cases of dehydration, illness and diarrhea.
- Electrolytes like potassium can be found in bananas and potatoes.
- So much sodium is available in the food supply that it is more of a concern to have too much. Label reading is a good way to identify which foods have high amounts.
- If an athlete is trying to replace sodium, then it is advisable to do so with some saltier foods. Foods such as bread and milk contain some sodium.
Identify the functions of water in the body. STEM (Math/Science/Biology)
Identify the functions of water:
- Carries water soluble vitamins.
- Carries waste through the body.
- Regulates body temperature through perspiration.
- Prevents dehydration. Dehydration occurs from lack of water.
Discuss why water is the most important of all the essential nutrients.
- The body cannot survive long without water.
- Drink water instead of sugary drinks.
Identify symptoms of dehydration and how to prevent it based on current daily recommendations.
- Thirst is an indicator of dehydration.
- Urine should be a pale yellow color. Darker urine is another indication of dehydration.
- Water prevents dehydration. Drink water and other fluids frequently; don't wait to be thirsty.
- 64 fl. oz. of water are recommended daily.
Discuss principles of hydration before, during and after sports and fitness activities
- For short duration exercise (<60 minutes) water is a good choice to drink before, during and after exercise.
- For moderate to high intensity activities lasting longer than 60 minutes sports drinks will help replace carbohydrate loss and electrolyte balance.
- Drink according to thirst during the day and include fluids with meals.
- Drink 8-20 oz of water an hour before exercise.
- Continue drinking during exercise, up to 16-24 oz of fluid per hour (4-6 oz every 15 minutes).
Apply food selection and preparation guidelines related to fruits and vegetables. STEM (Biology/Science)
Identify the nutrients provided by fruits and vegetables. (i.e., vitamins, minerals, fiber, water)
- Vegetables provide vitamin A, vitamin C, potassium, folic acid, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, fiber and water.
- Vegetables contain no cholesterol and are low in calories, fat and sodium.
- Vary your vegetables.
Identify how to preserve nutrients in the storage process of fruits and vegetables.
- Air, heat and water destroy nutrients in vegetables.
- Wash vegetables to remove pesticides and dirt that might remain on the skin.
Identify preparation methods to preserve the most nutrients for vegetables and / or fruits:
- Eat raw
- Stir fry
- Cook in larger rather than smaller pieces when possible.
- Use small amounts of water and cook only until fork tender.
- Save the cooking liquid to use in soups or gravies for added nutrients.
Identify how to select fresh, frozen, or canned fruits and vegetables.
- Select fresh fruits and vegetables that are firm, free from decay, crisp, smooth, dense (heavy for size), free from bruises and have good color.
- Seasonal fruits and vegetables are lower in cost, plentiful and have better quality.
- Buy only what you will be able to store and use. Fruits and vegetables will last about one week in the refrigerator.
- Fruits ripen and spoil faster at room temperature.
- Choose whole or cut-up fruits more often than fruit juice.
Discuss farm-to-table process.
- Food doesn't start at the supermarket or restaurant.
- The five farm-to-table steps include the following:
- Farm (use of good agricultural practices)
- Processing (monitor at critical control points)
- Transportation (use clean vehicles and maintain the cold chain)
- Retail (follow the food code guidelines)
- Table (always follow the four C's of safety- clean, cook, control cross contamination, chill).
Discuss how to prevent oxidation of fresh fruits.
- When most fresh fruit is cut, the surface will turn brown. This is called oxidation and is caused by an enzyme in the fruit.
- Prevent oxidation of fresh fruits by dipping or covering fruit with liquid containing ascorbic acid. Another way to prevent oxidation is to wait to cut the fruit until ready to eat.
Performance Objective 8
Actively participate in the preparation of a canned/frozen and / or fresh produce food. Compare the nutritional content and cost of a comparable canned / frozen vs. fresh produce food.
Students will explore the current Dietary Guidelines and ChooseMyPlate.gov.
Identify the five Dietary Guidelines and the key recommendations for each. (The guidelines are listed below.) STEM (Math/Science/Biology)
Follow a healthy eating pattern across the lifespan.
- All food and beverage choices matter. Choose a healthy eating pattern at an appropriate calorie level to help achieve and maintain a healthy body weight, support nutrient adequacy, and reduce the risk of chronic disease.
Focus on variety, nutrient density, and amount.
- To meet nutrient needs within calorie limits, choose a variety of nutrientdense foods across and within all food groups in recommended amounts.
- Nutrient dense foods provide vitamins, minerals and other beneficial substances with relatively few calories.
Limit calories from added sugars and saturated fats and reduce sodium intake.
- Create an eating pattern low in added sugars, saturated fats, trans fats and sodium. Cut back on foods and beverages higher in these components to amounts that fit within healthy eating patterns.
Shift to healthier food and beverage choices.
- Choose nutrient-dense foods and beverages across and within all food groups in place of less healthy choices. Consider cultural and personal preferences to make these shifts easier to accomplish and maintain.
Support healthy eating patterns for all.
- Everyone has a role in helping to create and support healthy eating patterns in multiple settings nationwide, from home to school to work to communities.
- Include physical exercise as part of healthy eating patterns. (Children and teens should be physically active for at least 60 minutes every day.)
Demonstrate knowledge of healthy eating patterns, including MyPlate and Dietary Guidelines (see ChooseMyPlate.gov). STEM (Science/Biology)
Explain how all food groups are important to good health.
- Each food group provides some, but not all, of the nutrients you need.
- No one single food or food group can provide all nutrients.
- Eating a variety ensures you get all nutrients.
Explain the importance of each food group.
- Grains Group (Make half of your grains whole grains.)
- Choose 100% whole grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice and pasta.
- Check the ingredients list on food packages to find whole grain foods.
- Make at least half of your grains whole grains.
- Protein Group (Keep meat and poultry portions small and lean.)
- Choose a variety of foods, including seafood, beans and peas, nuts, lean meats, poultry and eggs.
- Keep meat and poultry portions small and lean.
- Try grilling, broiling, poaching or roasting. These methods do not add extra fat.
- Vegetable Group (Eat more red, orange and dark green vegetables.)
- Chose fresh, frozen, canned, or dried fruits and vegetables.
- Eat more red, orange, and dark green vegetables, such as tomatoes, sweet potatoes, and broccoli in main and side dishes.
- Fruit Group (Make half your plate fruits and vegetables.)
- Use fruit as snacks, salads or desserts.
- Choose whole or cut-up fruits more often than fruit juice.
- Make half your plate fruits and vegetables.
- Dairy Group (Switch to low-fat or fat-free dairy products. Get your calciumrich foods.)
- Low-fat or fat-free dairy products have the same amount of calcium and other essential nutrients as whole milk, but less fat and calories.
Identify the characteristics of healthy eating patterns:
- Reading and understanding food labels
- Portion control
- Functions and caloric value of the 6 nutrients
Explain how people have different caloric needs depending on age, gender and activity level.
Performance Objective 9
Evaluate and analyze a personal dietary intake for one or more days according to the dietary guidelines and MyPlate.
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