The Universe - Star Colors
How would you describe the way a car's sound changes as it drives past you? Think of the last time a train went past you, or the last time you watched a NASCAR race. How does the pitch of the sound change when a train or race car passes you? You probably noticed the sound appears to change pitch. We call this change in pitch, due to motion, the Doppler Effect. (Watch the video below to see an example) As an object that is producing a noise approaches you, the sound waves will be pushed together, resulting in a higher frequency. This causes a higher pitch. The frequency of the sound wave is what causes pitch.
The same principle applies to light. In order to understand this, we need to review the electromagnetic spectrum. Remember that visible light (the light we can see) can be broken down into individual colors. White light, when passed through a prism is broken into the colors of the rainbow. The difference between red light and blue light are based on wavelength and frequency. Since red light has a longer wavelength, it will have a lower frequency meaning that fewer waves will pass a given point in a certain amount of time.
Now, think of all the stars in the sky on a clear night. Each star is composed of different elements that are burning to produce the light that is seen. Each element produces different wavelengths of light when they are burned. These different wavelengths can then be used to identify what type of gas is producing the light. For example, when hydrogen is burned, it produces light that has wavelengths of 410.17 nanometers (nm), 434.05 nm, 486.13 nm, and 656.28 nm. Astronomers use devices called spectroscopes to view those four wavelengths of light. Whenever you use a spectroscope and see light produced at the wavelengths listed above, you know that they came from hydrogen. Look at the pictures below to notice what different elements look like when they burn and what scientists see when they look at that light through a spectroscope. Each of the lines that you see when looking through a spectroscope are called spectral lines and each line represents each of the wavelengths of light emitted by the element. Below you can see two different gases burning and the spectral lines you would see if you were to look through the spectroscope pictured next to the lines.
Quickly review the Doppler Effect. When the car was approaching you, the waves were being pushed together, resulting in a higher frequency, or higher pitch. It was just the opposite when the car was moving away from you, waves were moved apart giving a lower frequency or a lower pitch.
The same principle applies to light. If a light source moves toward you, the spectrum produced by that light will be shifted. Light waves will be pushed together and will produce a spectrum that has all of the lines pushed toward the blue end of the spectrum. This is known as a blue shift. If, however, the light source is moving away from you, the spectral lines will be pushed toward the red end of the spectrum, something we call a red shift.
Now, you are the astronomer. When looking at a certain
star through a spectroscope, you notice that the spectral lines that should
be present are all shifted toward the red end of the spectrum. What can
you say about the direction that star is moving in relation to Earth? Check
your answer. Just the opposite would be true if you saw a blue shift,
the star would then be moving toward Earth.
Check your understanding by looking at the pictures below. Determine which set of spectral lines represents a star moving toward Earth. Then choose which set of spectral lines represents a star that is moving away from Earth. Check your answers.