|| Twenty-six nations led by Britain, the United
States, and the Soviet Union that joined in war against
Nazi Germany, Italy, Japan, and their allies, known
as the Axis powers.
|| Prejudices toward Jews or discrimination
|| Originally, a term for peoples speaking the
languages of Europe and India. Twisted by Nazis,
who viewed those of Germanic background as the best
examples of "superior," "Aryan race."
|| Largest Nazi camp, located 37
miles west of Cracow, Poland. Established in 1940
as a concentration camp, it included a killing center,
at Birkenau, in 1942. Also part of the huge camp
complex was I. G. Farben's slave labor camp, known
||Nazi extermination camp in eastern Poland
where an estimated 550,000 Jews were killed between
March 1942 and December 1942. Earlier, Belzec functioned
as a forced-labor camp.
|| Located in northern Germany, transformed
from a prisoner-exchange camp into a concentration
camp in March 1944. Poor sanitary conditions, epidemics,
and starvation led to deaths of thousands, including
Anne and Margot Frank in March 1945.
|| Concentration camp in north-central
Germany, established in July 1937. One of the largest
concentration camps on German soil, with more than
130 satellite labor camps. It held many political
prisoners. More than 65,000 of approximately 250,000
prisoners perished at Buchenwald.
||Chief (prime) minister of Germany, head
of the government.
|| Nazi extermination camp in western Poland
where at least 150,000 Jews, about 5,000 Gypsies,
and several hundred Poles, as well as Soviet prisoners
of war, were killed between December 1941 and March
1943 and between April and August 1944.
|| In German, Konzentrationslager.
Prison camps constructed to hold Jews, Gypsies, political
and religious opponents, resisters, homosexuals,
and other Germans considered "enemies of the state." Before
the end of World War II, more than 100 concentration
camps had been created across German-occupied Europe.
||First concentration camp, established in
March 1933 near Munich, Germany. At first Dachau
held only political opponents, but over time, more
and more groups were imprisoned there. Thousands
died at Dachau from starvation, maltreatment, and
||Term widely used to describe both extermination
camps, such as Auschwitz-Birkenau and Treblinka,
where people were murdered in assembly-line style
by gassing, and concentration camps such as Bergen-Belsen
and Dachau, without gas chambers but where thousands
were killed by starvation, disease, and maltreatment.
|| Located near Paris, Drancy became the largest
transit camp for deportation of Jews from France.
Between July 1942 and August 1944, about 61,000 Jews
were transported from Drancy to Auschwitz, where
most of them perished.
|Eichmann, Adolf (1906-1962)
|| SS Lieutenant Colonel
and head of the Gestapo department dealing with Jewish
affairs. Organized transports of Jews from all over
Europe to Nazi extermination camps. After the war,
he escaped to Latin America. Captured by the Israeli
Secret Service in Argentina, he was brought to Israel
for trial. He was tried in Jerusalem in 1961, convicted,
||Mobile units of SS and SD (Security
Service) which followed German armies into the Soviet
Union in June 1941. They were ordered to shoot all
Jews, as well as Communist leaders and Gypsies. At
least one million Jews were killed by Einsatzgruppen.
|| In German, Vernichtungslager.
Nazi camps, equipped with gassing facilities, for
mass murder of Jews. Located in Poland at Auschwitz-Birkenau,
Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek-Lublin, Sobibor, and Treblinka.
Up to 2,700,000 Jews were murdered at these six camps,
as were tens of thousands of Gypsies, Soviet prisoners
of war, Poles, and others.
||Refers to "the final solution to
the Jewish question in Europe." Nazi code for physical
destruction of European Jews.
|Frank, Anne (1929-1945)
|| Born in Frankfurt, Germany.
In 1933, she moved with her family to Amsterdam,
Holland. On July 6, 1942, they went into hiding and,
helped by Miep Gies, remained in hiding until their
arrest by Gestapo on August 4, 1944. They were held
at the Westerbork transit camp from August 8, 1944
until September 3, 1944, when they were deported
to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Anne's mother, Edith Frank,
perished there on January 6, 1945. Anne and her sister,
Margot, were transferred to Bergen-Belsen in late
October 1944, and they both died there of typhus
in March 1945. Anne's father, Otto Frank, survived.
|| German word for "leader."
||Deliberate, systematic destruction of
a racial, cultural, or political group.
|| In German, Geheime Staatspolizei. Secret
|Goebbels, Paul Josef (1897-1945)
|| Minister of propaganda
in Nazi Germany, who was close to Hitler. At the
end of the war, Goebbels and his wife took their
own lives and those of their six children.
|| Popular term for Roma and Sinti, nomadic
people believed to have come originally from northwest
India. Traveling mostly in small caravans, Gypsies
first appeared in western Europe in the 1400s and
eventually spread to every country of Europe. Prejudices
toward Gypsies were and are widespread. Approximately
250,000 to 500,000 Gypsies are believed to have perished
in Nazi concentration camps, killing centers, and
in Einzatsgruppen and other shootings.
|Heydrich, Reinhard (1904-1942)
|| SS Lieutenant General,
head of the Reich Security, which included the Gestapo.
Organized the Einsatzgruppen and led the Wannsee
Conference of January 1942, where the coordination
of the "final solution" was discussed. He was shot
by members of the Czech resistance on May 27, 1942,
near Prague, and died several days later. To honor
Heydrich, Nazis gave the code name "Operation Reinhard" to
destruction of the Jews in occupied Poland, at Belzec,
Sobibor, and Treblinka extermination camps.
|Himmler, Heinrich (1900-1945)
||Reich leader of the
SS from 1929 to 1945, during World War 11, he was
head of a vast empire: all SS formations, police
forces, concentration and labor camps. The senior
SS leader responsible for carrying out the "final
solution," Himmler committed suicide before he could
be brought to trial.
|| Religious sect that originated
in the United States and had about 20,000 members
in Germany in 1933. Witnesses, whose religious beliefs
did not allow them to swear allegiance to any worldly
power, were persecuted as "enemies of the state." About
10,000 Witnesses from Germany and other countries
were imprisoned in concentration camps. Of these,
about 2,500 died.
|| In German, Judenrat. Council of
Jewish leaders established on Nazi orders in German-occupied
towns and cities.
|| German word for "Jews." Killing Centers Camps
equipped with facilities to kill with poisonous gas:
Belzec, Chelmno, Sobibor, Treblinka, as well as killing
sections of Auschwitz-Birkenau and Majdanek-Lublin
||Before World War II, a major industrial city
in western Poland with a Jewish population second
only to Warsaw's. In April 1940, the first major
ghetto was created there. Some 43,500 persons died
in the Lodz ghetto from starvation, disease, and
exposure to cold. Thousands more taken from the ghetto
were killed by gassing at Chelmno. In August-September
1944, the 60,000 remaining Jews were sent to Auschwitz.
|| Located near Lublin in eastern
Poland, at first a labor camp for Poles and prisoner-of-war
camp for Soviets, it existed as a concentration camp
from April 1943 to July 1944. Tens of thousands perished
there from starvation, maltreatment, and shootings.
Also a killing center, where at least 50,000 Jews
|| Concentration camp for men near Linz
in upper Austria, opened in August 1938. Many political
prisoners were held at Mauthausen and its numerous
subcamps. Classified by the SS as one of the two
harshest concentration camps; many prisoners were
killed there by being pushed from 300-foot cliffs
into stone quarries.
|Mengele, Josef (1911-1979)
||Senior SS physician
at Auschwitz-Birkenau from 1943 to 1944. One of the
physicians who carried out "selections" of prisoners
upon arrival at camp, separating those assigned to
forced labor and those to be killed. Mengele also
carried out cruel research on twins deported to the
camp. After the war, he disappeared. The corpse of
a Wolfgang Gerhard, who died in a swimming accident
in 1979, was discovered in Brazil in 1985 and identified
|| Short term for National Socialist German Workers
Party, a right-wing, nationalistic, and antisemitic
political party formed in 1919 and headed by Adolf
Hitler from 1921 to 1945.
|| Control of a country taken over by a
foreign military power.
|| Mandate of Territory assigned
to British control in 1920 by terms of a postwar
treaty with defeated Turkey; the British mandate
was ended on May l 5, 1948, when the territory was
divided into the State of Israel and the Kingdom
|| Member of a resistance group operating
secretly within enemy lines, using hit-and-run guerrilla
tactics against occupying forces.
|| Act of causing others to suffer, especially
those who differ in background or lifestyle or hold
different political or religious beliefs.
|| Russian word for "devastation." Organized
violence against Jews, often with understood support
||Concentration camp for women opened
in May 1939, 56 miles north of Berlin. An estimated
120,000 prisoners were inmates there, including many
political prisoners, Jews, Gypsies, and Jehovah's
|| German word for "empire."
|| Germany's lawmaking body, its parliament.
|| Demilitarized zone that Allies established
after World War I as a buffer between Germany and
|Roosevelt, Franklin Delano
president of the United States, serving from 1933
||In German, Sturmabteilung. Storm Troopers. Also
called "Brownshirts." Members of a special armed
and uniformed branch of the Nazi party.
|| Person or group of persons unfairly blamed
for wrongs done by others.
||Yiddish word for small Jewish town or village.
|| Nazi extermination camp in eastern Poland
where up to 200,000 Jews were killed between May
1942 and November 1943.
||German word for "special squad." In
the context of extermination camps, it refers to
units of Jewish prisoners forced to take away bodies
of gassed inmates to be cremated and to remove gold
fillings and hair.
||In German, Schutzstaffel. Protection Squad.
Units formed in 1925 as Hitler's personal bodyguard.
The SS was later built into a giant organization
by Heinrich Himmler. It provided staff for police,
camp guards, and military units (Waffen-SS) serving
with the German army.
|Star of David
|| Star with six points, symbol of the
||Mainly German-speaking region that
was part of Czechoslovakia between the two world
wars. Annexed by Germany in October 1938.
||German name for Czech town of Terezin,
located about 40 miles from Prague. Nazis used the
Theresienstadt ghetto, established in November 1941,
as a "model Jewish settlement" to show Red Cross
investigators how well Jews were being treated. In
reality, thousands died there from starvation and
disease, and thousands more were deported and killed
in extermination camps.
|| Nazi extermination camp about 50 miles
northeast of Warsaw. Up to 750,000 Jews and at least
2,000 Gypsies were killed at Treblinka between July
1942 and November 1943.
||Organized group acting in secrecy to
oppose the government or, during war, to resist occupying
|| The capital of Poland, where about 375,000
Jews lived on the eve of World War I1. In October-November
1940, Germans established the Warsaw ghetto, into
which some 500,000 Jews were crowded. Of these, an
average of 5,000 to 6,000 died each month from starvation,
disease, exposure to cold, and shootings. Tens of
thousands were deported to Treblinka in 1942. After
an uprising organized by resistance fighters ended
on May 16, 1943, the surviving Jews were deported
to Nazi camps.
||German republic(1919-1933), a parliamentary
democracy, established after World War I, with its
capital in the city of Weimar.
||Transit camp in northeastern Holland
for almost 100,000 Jews who were deported between
1942 and 1944 to Auschwitz-Birkenau, Sobibor, Theresienstadt,
and Bergen-Belsen. Anne Frank and her family were
held at Westerbork between August 8, 1944 and September
3, 1944, when they were put on the last transport
|| A language that combines elements of German
and Hebrew, usually written in Hebrew characters
and spoken by Jews chiefly in eastern Europe and
areas to which eastern Europeans have migrated.