Anne Frank in the World, 1929 - 1945 Teacher Workbook
The Anne Frank Journal is an American adaptation of
the Anne Frank Krant that is published in Holland.
The Anne Frank Krant is published by the Anne Frank
Center every year on May 5th. On this day the liberation
from the Nazi regime is celebrated in Holland. In the
Anne Frank Krant the history of the rise and fall of
the Nazis is told, together with the story of Anne
Frank. Information is also given about current forms
of racism, discrimination and neo-Nazism.
Working with the Anne Frank Center in New York, and
with the help of American educational experts, we have
adapted the text and illustrations of the Anne Frank
Krant for use in middle and secondary schools in the
United States. We expect the Journal to be appropriate
for use in subjects like English, History, Social Studies,
and Moral Education. The Journal is best used in projects
that combine several of these subjects.
Approach & Aims
The premise of the Anne Frank Journal is that the
study of history is most meaningful when it has significance
for present day society. The Journal examines the history
of the period 1929-1945 on the scale of the individual
as well as on the larger scale of political developments.
The story of Anne Frank is the story of an 'ordinary'
girl who became a victim of a regime that believed
in the principle of racial superiority.
The history of Nazi Germany is the history of a country
that expelled Jews and other so-called 'inferior' people
from society, oppressed them, and finally exterminated
them. It was a slow process that started in a small
way and ended on a dreadful and gigantic scale. The
Journal is concerned with the way the process began
and with how people reacted to the Nazis: with indifference,
resignation, selfishness, or resistance.
The Anne Frank Journal stresses the need for every
individual to make a choice, not only with regard to
what happened in the past, but also with regard to
what is happening today when people are often still
treated as second-class citizens because of their descent,
when racist groups try to blame minorities for all
problems, and when racial violence (by organized racists
and 'ordinary' people) is common.
Series of Lessons
the students what questions they have after
reading the Journal.
- Select the subjects that
you consider to be the most important. Select the
articles accordingly so that they center around
the theme you want to emphasize.
- Work towards a
final product. This might be:
- a report by the
students about the lessons
- an essay or talk
by the students on the theme
- a wall poster
or collage made by students
- an exhibition
for other classes or students
- any other
art-craft work that's appropriate
- the writing
and staging of a play by the students with
discrimination as the theme
- the formation
of an anti-racist group
- Supply background
information. Contact the local library
(or exhibition committee) beforehand and ask
whether they can provide clippings and information
on fascism and racism. Also, depending
on their knowledge, the students may need more
background information on the history of
the Second World War.
- Create a certain atmosphere.
When you work with these themes it is helpful
to make the atmosphere in the classroom appropriate
for the subject. For instance, place posters and
photographs on the walls.
- Let the students collect
their own information. Students will be more involved
if they can collect their own information and have
to make an effort to get it. They can make interviews
or collect clippings on racism and fascism.
a guest speaker. Oral information will enliven
the lessons enormously. A meeting with a guest
speaker (preferably a survivor of the resistance
or the concentration camps) is usually quite
impressive for students. Also, videotapes of people
who remember the period are helpful teaching tools.
- Be alert for information
that needs further exploration. Leave time at the
end of the project for the students.
'It's really a wonder that I haven't dropped all my ideals.'
quotations in Anne Frank's diary which
you think will appeal to your students. Each quotation
can serve as material for discussion.
to make the students imagine what it would be
like hiding in the Secret Annex. What would you
miss? What would the constant threat and fear do
- Write the following text
on the blackboard:
I can feel the sufferings of millions and yet,
if I look up to the heavens, I think that it
will all come right, that this cruelty too will
end, and that peace and tranquility will return
again. -- (July 15, 1944)
- Ask the students: Have Anne
Frank's words come true?
We Are Not Going to Take It
- Discuss the
various reactions to the Nazi occupation
of Holland and the persecution of the Jews.
the various motives people could have had for
joining the resistance. The resistance
operated in several ways, on a small and large scale, and people had a
lot of different reasons to hate the Nazi occupation.
- Show several pictures of
resistance activities. Discuss the risks these
- Discuss the roles of the
people who helped the Frank family hide in the
Secret Annex. Why would the helpers have done this?
Ask the students to imagine what this would take.
- Ask the students to name
and discuss people who help others in emergency
situations nowadays. What do the students think
they themselves would or could do to help other
people in a risky situation?
The Rise and Fall Of
be emphasized that the Nazi's were elected
with 6.4 million votes, a plurality.
Racism is not just a matter of neo-Nazi propaganda.
It is important to stress that, though racism is a
keystone in fascist thought, action against neo-Nazism
is not identical to fighting racism.
Read the sentence:
will spot a problem and will not rest until they
have found a scapegoat to blame it on.
examples are given in the text that indicate that
Jews were used as scapegoats by the Nazis?
the class give examples of groups that are used as
- Let the class develop a description
of what happens when people are made scapegoats.
the question: Could today's racism lead to something
like the Holocaust?
Return to the quote from the
diary that you put on the blackboard and ask the
students their opinions after going through the whole
Anne Frank Center
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